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Figure 2: Examples of transpulmonary pressures with and without spontaneous effort – During a pressure- or volume-controlled mechanical breath in a paralyzed patient (left), the transpulmonary pressure is the difference between the airway pressure and pleural pressures (25 = 30 - 5) and transvascular pressure is the difference between the capillary pressure and pleural pressures (5=10-5). In a spontaneously breathing mechanically ventilated patient (right), airway pressure is constant but pleural pressure is negative. This results in both increased transpulmonary pressure (45 = 30--15) and transvascular pressures (25=10--15), which may worsen lung injury and pulmonary edema. Paw: Airway pressure, Ppl: Pleural pressure, Pcap: Capillary pressure, PL: Transpulmonary pressure

Figure 2: Examples of transpulmonary pressures with and without spontaneous effort – During a pressure- or volume-controlled mechanical breath in a paralyzed patient (left), the transpulmonary pressure is the difference between the airway pressure and pleural pressures (25 = 30 - 5) and transvascular pressure is the difference between the capillary pressure and pleural pressures (5=10-5). In a spontaneously breathing mechanically ventilated patient (right), airway pressure is constant but pleural pressure is negative. This results in both increased transpulmonary pressure (45 = 30--15) and transvascular pressures (25=10--15), which may worsen lung injury and pulmonary edema. P<sub>aw</sub>: Airway pressure, P<sub>pl</sub>: Pleural pressure, P<sub>cap</sub>: Capillary pressure, P<sub>L</sub>: Transpulmonary pressure