Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
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   2014| July-September  | Volume 9 | Issue 3  
    Online since June 7, 2014

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Will any future increase in cigarette price reduce smoking in Saudi Arabia?
Omar A. Al-Mohrej, Sara I. AlTraif, Hani M. Tamim, Hana Fakhoury
July-September 2014, 9(3):154-157
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.134070  PMID:24987474
Context: In Saudi Arabia, no studies have been conducted on the correlation between any possible cigarette's price increase and its effects on cigarette consumption. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Saudi Arabia and to predict the effect of price increase on cigarette consumption. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in April and May 2013. Methods: We developed an Arabic questionnaire with information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, smoking history, and personal opinion on the effect of price increase on cigarette consumption. The questionnaire was distributed in public places such as malls and posted on famous Saudi athlete media's twitter accounts. Results: Among the 2057 included responses, 802 (39%) were current smokers. The smokers' population constituted of 746 (92%) males, of which 546 (68%) had a monthly income equal or greater to 800 US dollars, and 446 (55%) were aged between 21 and 30 years. Multivariate analyses of the risk factors for smoking showed that male gender and older age were associated with greater risk. Despite the current low prices of 2.67 US dollars, 454 smokers (56%) thought that cigarette prices are expensive. When asked about the price of cigarettes that will lead to smoking cessation, 443 smokers (55%) expected that a price of 8.27 US dollars and more per pack will make them quit. Conclusions: Increasing the price of popular cigarettes pack from 2.67 US dollars to 8.27 US dollars is expected to lead to smoking cessation in a large number of smokers in the Saudi population.
  6,092 463 4
Improving the care of sepsis: Between system redesign and professional responsibility: A roundtable discussion in the world sepsis day, September 25, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Yaseen Arabi, Ahmed Alamry, Mitchell M. Levy, Saadi Taher, Abdellatif M. Marini
July-September 2014, 9(3):134-137
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.134066  PMID:24987470
This paper summarizes the roundtable discussion in September 25, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as part of the World Sepsis Day held in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh. The objectives of the roundtable discussion were to (1) review the chasm between the current management of sepsis and best practice, (2) discuss system redesign and role of the microsystem in sepsis management, (3) emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of the care of sepsis and that improvement of the care of sepsis is the responsibility of all, (4) discuss the bundle concept in sepsis management, and (5) reflect on the individual responsibility of the health care team toward sepsis with a focus on accountability and the moral agent.
  5,573 546 4
Interleukin-6 and procalcitonin as biomarkers in mortality prediction of hospitalized patients with community acquired pneumonia
Ilija Andrijevic, Jovan Matijasevic, Ljiljana Andrijevic, Tomi Kovacevic, Bojan Zaric
July-September 2014, 9(3):162-167
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.134072  PMID:24987476
Introduction: Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) may present as life-threatening infection with uncertain progression and outcome of treatment. Primary aim of the trial was determination of the cut-off value of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and procalcitonin (PCT) above which, 30-day mortality in hospitalized patients with CAP, could be predicted with high sensitivity and specificity. We investigated correlation between serum levels of IL-6 and PCT at admission and available scoring systems of CAP (pneumonia severity index-PSI, modified early warning score-MEWS and (Confusion, Urea nitrogen, respiratory rate, Blood pressure, ≥65 years of age-CURB65). Methods: This was prospective, non-randomized trial which included 101 patients with diagnosed CAP. PSI, MEWS and CURB65 were assessed on first day of hospitalization. IL-6 and PCT were also sampled on the first day of hospitalization. Results: Based on ROC curve analysis (AUC ± SE = 0.934 ± 0.035; 95%CI(0.864-1.0); P = 0.000) hospitalized CAP patients with elevated IL-6 level have 93.4% higher risk level for lethal outcome. Cut-off value of 20.2 pg/ml IL-6 shows sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 87% in mortality prediction. ROC curve analysis confirmed significant role of procalcitonin as a mortality predictor in CAP patients (AUC ± SE = 0.667 ± 0.062; 95%CI(0.546-0.789); P = 0.012). Patients with elevated PCT level have 66.7% higher risk level for lethal outcome. As a predictor of mortality at the cut-off value of 2.56 ng/ml PCT shows sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 61.8%. Conclusions: Both IL-6 and PCI are significant for prediction of 30-day mortality in hospitalized patients with CAP. Serum levels of IL6 correlate with major CAP scoring systems.
  5,012 816 22
Save or sacrifice the internal mammary pedicle during anterior mediastinotomy?
Efstratios Apostolakis, Nikolaos A. Papakonstantinou, Serafeim Chlapoutakis, Christos Prokakis
July-September 2014, 9(3):138-143
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.134067  PMID:24987471
Ligation and dissection of internal mammary vessels is the most under-estimated complication of anterior mediastinotomy. However, patients requiring anterior mediastinotomy may experience long survival that makes the development of ischemic heart disease throughout their life possible. Therefore, the un-judicial sacrifice of the internal mammary pedicle may deprive them from the benefit to have their internal mammary artery used as a graft in order to successfully bypass severe left anterior descending artery stenoses. We recommend the preservation of the internal mammary pedicle during anterior mediastinotomy, which should be a common message among our colleagues from the beginning of their training.
  4,722 491 -
Patterns of tobacco consumption in food facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Ahmed Mandil, Mohammad Yamani, Abdulaziz BinSaeed, Shaffi Ahmad, Afnan Younis, Ahmad Al-Mutlaq, Omar Al-Baqmy, Abdulaziz Al-Rajhi
July-September 2014, 9(3):173-178
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.134075  PMID:24987478
Aim: This study aimed at assessing prevailing patterns and risk factors of tobacco consumption among clients, food handlers and employers of food facilities, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional approach to a representative sample of food facilities in Riyadh was used. A sample of 3000 participants included clients (75%); food handlers/hospitality workers (20 %) and employers (5 %). Participants were reached at restaurants, food courts or cafes. A modified version of the WHO-CDC-Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: The prevalence of tobacco use at food facilities was found to be 40.3 %, of which 74% were customers, 18.8% were food handlers and 7.2% were managers. The consumption of tobacco was higher at restaurants (39.9%), but lowest at food courts of shopping malls. Water pipe (55.3%) was the main consumption type, followed by cigarettes (42.6%) and chewing tobacco (2.1%). Multivariate analysis showed that gender (male), marital status (single), and type of food facility (Estaraha and café/coffee shop) were independent risk factors associated with tobacco use at food facilities. Conclusion: Tobacco use is very common in food facilities in Riyadh as reflected by results of our study, especially among single males Saudis. We should build on success encountered in banning smoking in airports, airplanes, shopping malls, market places, educational institutions and healthcare facilities, extending the ban to include food facilities as well. This is important for the health of non-smokers as well as smokers themselves.
  4,662 426 -
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in Saudi Arabia: Demographic, clinical, and survival data from two tertiary care hospitals
Nahid Sherbini, Maun N Feteih, Siraj O Wali, Omer S Alamoudi, Salem M Al-Faifi, Imran Khalid
July-September 2014, 9(3):168-172
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.134073  PMID:24987477
Background : Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is rare and can be challenging to diagnose. Limited data is available from the Middle Eastern region, especially Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a retrospective study that looked at all the patients diagnosed with IPF between 2007 and 2012 at two tertiary care hospitals in Saudi Arabia. We collected the demographical, clinical, laboratory and radiological data from the patients' medical records. Medications administered and 1 year survival was also assessed. Results : Between 2007and 2012, 134 IPF patients were identified. Their baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD) included: age 64 ± 13 years, body mass index 29 ± 8 kg/m 2 , FEV 1 56 ± 15 percent of predicted, FVC 53 ± 13 percent of predicted, FEV 1 /FVC 0.81 ± 0.09, total lung capacity 75 ± 13 percent of predicted, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide 57 ± 15 percent of predicted, on home oxygen at presentation 71 (53%), mean ejection fraction 0.50 ± 0.07, mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure (via echocardiogram) 40 + 22 mmHg, presentation mean S pO2 92 ± 7%, presentation 6-min walk distance 338 ± 64 m and lowest S pO2 during 6-min walk test 88 ± 5%. Patients were predominantly female (56%), and 42% of patients had diabetes and were active smokers. The IPF patients' frequency of hospital admission (n = 99) was 2.4 ± 1.7 per year and duration of hospital stay (n = 99) was 17.4 ± 23.8 days. Overall 1 year survival in all IPF patients was good, 93% (124) patients remained alive after 1 year. Conclusions : In Saudi Arabia, IPF patients tended to be slightly older and the disease progression was somewhat slower than reported IPF cohorts in other populations. They had frequent hospital admissions and a long hospital length of stay. The influence of genetics and co-morbid diseases on the incidence and outcome of IPF should be explored further.
  4,494 483 5
Properties of novel composite meshes in chest wall reconstruction: A comparative animal study
Patrick Zardo, Ruoyu Zhang, Stefan Freermann, Stefan Fischer
July-September 2014, 9(3):158-161
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.134071  PMID:24987475
Purpose: Novel composite meshes routinely used in laparoscopic hernia repair reportedly lead to fewer and less dense visceral adhesions and may provide a viable alternative in thoracic surgery as well. Methods: A total of 15 adult domestic pigs underwent full thickness chest wall resection and reconstruction with Parietene (polypropylene composite; PTE, n = 5), Parietex (polyester composite; PTX, n = 5) or Bard (purely polypropylene, n = 5) mesh. After an observation period of 90 days all animals were sacrificed, intrathoracic adhesions classified via thoracoscopy (VATS), meshes explanted and peak peal strength required for lung/mesh separation recorded. Results: Adhesions assessed through VATS-exploration were strongest in the PTX-Group while PTE and BM showed comparable results. Tensiometric analyses of peak peal strength confirmed lower values in BM than for PTE and PTX. Both composite materials showed good overall bioincorporation with post-surgical perigraft-fibrosis being strongest in BM. Conclusion: We consider composite grafts a suitable alternative for chest wall reconstruction. They are characterized by good overall biointegration and limited perigraft-fibrosis, thus potentially facilitating redo-procedures, even though a hydrophilic coating per se does not appear to prevent intrathoracic adhesion formation.
  4,418 516 2
Pulmonary rehabilitation improves only some domains of health-related quality of life measured by the Short Form-36 questionnaire
Chok Limsuwat, Ryan McClellan, Hoda Mojazi Amiri, Kenneth Nugent
July-September 2014, 9(3):144-148
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.134068  PMID:24987472
Background: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has inconsistent effects on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with chronic lung diseases. We evaluated the effect of PR on HRQL outcomes using the 36-item short form of the medical outcomes (SF-36). Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the files of all patients who completed PR in 2010, 2011, and first half of 2012. We collected information on demographics, symptoms, pulmonary function tests, 6-minute walk tests (6-MWT), and responses on the SF-36 survey, including the physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS). Results: The study included 19 women and 22 men. The mean age was 69.8 ± 8.5 years. The diagnoses included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n = 31), asthma (n = 3), interstitial lung disease (n = 5), and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; n = 2). The mean forced expiratory volume-one second (FEV1) was 1.16 ± 0.52 L (against 60.5 ± 15.9% of predicted value). There was a significant improvement in 6-MWT (P < 0.0001). The PCS improved post-PR from 33.8 to 34.5 (P = 0.02); the MCS did not change. Conclusion: These patients had low SF-36 scores compared to the general population; changes in scores after PR were low. These patients may need frequent HRQL assessment during rehabilitation, and PR programs should consider program modification in patients with small changes in mental health.
  4,218 626 4
Computer tomography-guided core biopsies in a county hospital in Sweden: Complication rate and diagnostic yield
Eva Branden, Stig Wallgren, Hans Hogberg, Hirsh Koyi
July-September 2014, 9(3):149-153
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.134069  PMID:24987473
Background: Core biopsies are valuable in obtaining sufficient tissue to ensure diagnosis of diseases in the thorax. Objective: To evaluate the complication rate and the diagnostic yield in computer tomography (CT)-guided core biopsies performed in a county hospital in Sweden. Methods: Medical journals, spirometry results, pathology reports and CT scans were reviewed in 463 consecutive cases, where a transthoracic core biopsy was performed between January 2005 and December 2010. Of these 380 (82%) were lung lesions, 48 (10%) were mediastinal lesions and 35 (8%) were pleural lesions. Results: All patients underwent a chest X-ray 4 hours post-biopsy and pneumothorax was seen in 156/463 (34%) patients: 137 after lung biopsy and 17 after mediastinal biopsy. Chest tube insertion was required for 27 (17%) of these patients (6% of all core biopsies). Small intraparenchymal hemorrhages and hemoptysis were observed with subjective difficulty in one case. The diagnostic yield for the 463 patients was 212 (46%) cases of lung cancer, 188 (41%) benign lesions and 39 (8%) pulmonary metastases. Conclusions: A transthoracic core biopsy ensures diagnosis with a low complication rate and is suitable as an outpatient procedure. An increased risk for pneumothorax was observed when the biopsied lesion was small or when emphysema was in the path of the biopsy needle. Reduced lung function pre-biopsy or emphysema in the path of the biopsy needle increased the need for chest tube treatment of pneumothorax. A CT-guided core biopsy is safe and applicable in a county hospital.
  3,944 541 2
Saudi guidelines on the treatment and management of pulmonary hypertension 2014: Updates a fresh understanding of pulmonary vascular diseases in the developing world
Ghazwan Butrous
July-September 2014, 9(3):131-133
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.134065  PMID:24987469
  3,258 589 -
Thoracic ultrasound: Possible complementary criteria for the assessment of pulmonary fibrosis
Guglielmo M. Trovato, Marco Sperandeo, Daniela Catalano
July-September 2014, 9(3):179-179
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.134077  PMID:24987479
  2,604 413 1
Respiratory morbidity in obesity, beyond obstructive sleep apnea
Chatterjee Krishnarpan, Sen Chetana
July-September 2014, 9(3):182-183
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.134081  PMID:24987483
  2,636 361 -
Outcome of pulmonary embolism and clinico-radiological predictors of mortality: Experience from a university hospital in Saudi Arabia which was published in the recent issue of Annals of Thoracic Medicine
Abdullah H Alsaghir, Soror A Alaithan
July-September 2014, 9(3):181-181
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.134079  PMID:24987481
  2,244 325 -
Reply to the editor
Paola Faverio
July-September 2014, 9(3):183-184
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.134082  PMID:24987484
  2,142 356 -
Reply to the editor
Ali A. Hasan, Hoda A. Makhlouf
July-September 2014, 9(3):180-181
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.134078  PMID:24987480
  2,112 291 -
Reply to the editor
Hadil AK Al Otair
July-September 2014, 9(3):182-182
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.134080  PMID:24987482
  2,005 294 -
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