Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2011| October-December  | Volume 6 | Issue 4  
    Online since September 12, 2011

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Development of Arabic version of Berlin questionnaire to identify obstructive sleep apnea at risk patients
Abdel Baset M Saleh, Magda A Ahmad, NJ Awadalla
October-December 2011, 6(4):212-216
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.84775  PMID:21977066
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common, under-recognized, under diagnosed, under treated, and serious medical condition in adults. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard for diagnosis of OSA; however, prohibitive cost of the test and rarity of sleep laboratory in the Arabic nations limit its access. So, searching for another simple, economical, reliable, and valid tool for identification of OSA at risk patients is of special public concern. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the reliability and validity of Arabic version of Berlin questionnaire (ABQ) in detection of OSA at risk patients. Methods: After hospital ethics approval and formal patients consent, 100 patients were subjected to full night PSG study after their response to the developed ABQ. The patients were classified into both low (30) and high risk (70) for OSA using ABQ and validated against apnea hypopnea index (AHI). Reliability was assessed by internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha test and consistency over time using test retest correlation. Results: The study demonstrated a high degree of internal consistency and stability over time for the developed ABQ. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the 10-item tool was 0.92. Validation of ABQ against AHI at cutoff >5 revealed a sensitivity of 97%, specificity of 90%, positive and negative predictive values of 96% and 93%, respectively. Conclusion: The ABQ is reliable and valid scale in screening patients for the risk of OSA among Arabic-speaking nations, especially in resource-limited settings.
  15 4,663 575
Post-traumatic pulmonary embolism in the intensive care unit
Mabrouk Bahloul, Anis Chaari, Hassen Dammak, Fatma Medhioub, Leila Abid, Hichem Ksibi, Sondes Haddar, Hatem Kallel, Hedi Chelly, Chokri Ben Hamida, Mounir Bouaziz
October-December 2011, 6(4):199-206
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.84773  PMID:21977064
Objective: To determine the predictive factors, clinical manifestations, and the outcome of patients with post-traumatic pulmonary embolism (PE) admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: During a four-year prospective study, a medical committee of six ICU physicians prospectively examined all available data for each trauma patient in order to classify patients according to the level of clinical suspicion of pulmonary thromboembolism. During the study period, all trauma patients admitted to our ICU were classified into two groups. The first group included all patients with confirmed PE; the second group included patients without clinical manifestations of PE. The diagnosis of PE was confirmed either by a high-probability ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scan or by a spiral computed tomography (CT) scan showing one or more filling defects in the pulmonary artery or its branches. Results: During the study period, 1067 trauma patients were admitted in our ICU. The diagnosis of PE was confirmed in 34 patients (3.2%). The mean delay of development of PE was 11.3 ± 9.3 days. Eight patients (24%) developed this complication within five days of ICU admission. On the day of PE diagnosis, the clinical examination showed that 13 patients (38.2%) were hypotensive, 23 (67.7%) had systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), three (8.8%) had clinical manifestations of deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and 32 (94%) had respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation. In our study, intravenous unfractionated heparin was used in 32 cases (94%) and low molecular weight heparin was used in two cases (4%). The mean ICU stay was 31.6 ± 35.7 days and the mean hospital stay was 32.7 ± 35.3 days. The mortality rate in the ICU was 38.2% and the in-hospital mortality rate was 41%. The multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with poor prognosis in the ICU were the presence of circulatory failure (Shock) (Odds ratio (OR) = 9.96) and thrombocytopenia (OR = 32.5).Moreover, comparison between patients with and without PE showed that the predictive factors of PE were: Age > 40 years, a SAPS II score > 25, hypoxemia with PaO2 /FiO 2 < 200 mmHg, the presence of spine fracture, and the presence of meningeal hemorrhage. Conclusion: Despite the high frequency of DVT in post-traumatic critically ill patients, symptomatic PE remains, although not frequently observed, because systematic screening is not performed. Factors associated with poor prognosis in the ICU are the presence of circulatory failure (shock) and thrombocytopenia. Predictive factors of PE are: Age > 40 years, a SAPS II score > 25, hypoxemia with PaO2 /FiO 2 < 200, the presence of a spine fracture, and the presence of meningeal hemorrhage. Prevention is highly warranted.
  12 5,774 805
Evaluation of a transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitor in patients with acute respiratory failure
Antonello Nicolini, Maura Bravo Ferrari
October-December 2011, 6(4):217-220
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.84776  PMID:21977067
Background: Non-invasive measurement of oxygenation is a routine procedure in clinical practice, but transcutaneous monitoring of PCO 2 (PtCO 2 ) is used much less than expected. Methods : The aim of our study was to analyze the value of a commercially available combined SpO 2 /PtCO 2 monitor (TOSCA-Linde Medical System, Basel, Switzerland) in adult non-invasive ventilated patients with acute respiratory failure. Eighty critically ill adult patients, requiring arterial blood sample gas analyses, underwent SpO 2 and PtCO 2 measurements (10 min after the probe was attached to an earlobe) simultaneously with arterial blood sampling. The level of agreement between PaCO2 - PtCO 2 and SaO 2 - SpO 2 was assessed by Bland-Altman analyses. Results : Both, SaO 2 from blood gas analysis and SpO 2 from the transcutaneous monitor, and PaCO 2 and PtCO 2 were equally useful. No measurements were outside of the acceptable clinical range of agreement of ± 7.5 mmHg. Conclusions : The accuracy of estimation of the TOSCA transcutaneous electrode (compared with the "gold standard" blood sample gas analysis) was generally good. Moreover, TOSCA presents the advantage of the possibility of continuous non-invasive measurement. The level of agreement of the two methods of measurement allows us to state that the TOSCA sensor is useful in routine monitoring of adults admitted to an intermediate respiratory unit and undergoing non-invasive ventilation.
  11 7,705 648
Effect of doxycycline in patients of moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with stable symptoms
Prashant S Dalvi, Anil Singh, Hiren R Trivedi, Feroz D Ghanchi, Dinesh M Parmar, Suresh D Mistry
October-December 2011, 6(4):221-226
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.84777  PMID:21977068
Background: The protease-antiprotease hypothesis proposes that inflammatory cells and oxidative stress in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) produce increased levels of proteolytic enzymes (neutrophil elastase, matrix metalloproteinases [MMP]) which contribute to destruction of parenchyma resulting in progressive decline in forced expiratory volume in one second. Doxycycline, a tetracycline analogue, possesses anti-inflammatory properties and inhibits MMP enzymes. Objectives: To assess the effect of 4 weeks doxycycline in a dose of 100 mg once a day in patients of moderate to severe COPD with stable symptoms. Methods : In an interventional, randomized, observer-masked, parallel study design, the effect of doxycycline (100 mg once a day for 4 weeks) was assessed in patients of COPD having stable symptoms after a run-in period of 4 weeks. The study participants in reference group did not receive doxycycline. The parameters were pulmonary functions, systemic inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP), and medical research council (MRC) dyspnea scale. Use of systemic corticosteroids or antimicrobial agents was not allowed during the study period. Results: A total of 61 patients completed the study (31 patients in doxycycline group and 30 patients in reference group). At 4 weeks, the pulmonary functions significantly improved in doxycycline group and the mean reduction in baseline serum CRP was significantly greater in doxycycline group as compared with reference group. There was no significant improvement in MRC dyspnea scale in both groups at 4 weeks. Conclusion: The anti-inflammatory and MMP-inhibiting property of doxycycline might have contributed to the improvement of parameters in this study.
  7 14,340 798
The role of mean platelet volume predicting acute exacerbations of cystic fibrosis in children
Pinar Uysal, Tuba Tuncel, Duygu Olmez, Arzu Babayigit, Ozkan Karaman, Nevin Uzuner
October-December 2011, 6(4):227-230
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.84778  PMID:21977069
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between acute exacerbations and the mean platelet volume (MPV) trend in children with cystic fibrosis (CF), to predict the exacerbations. Methods: A total of 46 children with CF and 37 healthy children were enrolled in the study. White blood cell count (WBC), hemoglobin level, platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV), and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were retrospectively recorded. Results: Our study population consisted of 25 (54.3%) males and 21 (45.7%) females with CF and 20 (54.0%) males and 17 (46.0%) females in the healthy control group. The mean age of the CF patients was 6.32 ± 4.9 years and that of the healthy subjects was 7.02 ± 3.15 years. In the acute exacerbation period of CF, the MPV values were lower and WBC and platelet counts were higher than those in the healthy controls (P = 0.00, P = 0.00, P = 0.00, respectively). Besides, in acute exacerbation, the MPV values were lower and the WBC count was higher than the values in the non-exacerbation period (P 0= 0.01, P = 0.00, respectively). In the non-exacerbation period MPV was lower and platelet count was higher when compared to healthy subjects (P = 0.02, P = 0.04, respectively). Conclusion: This study suggests that MPV might be used as a simple, cost effective, diagnostic, predictive indicator for platelet activation in pediatric CF patients related to chronic inflammation, which might be helpful to discriminate or estimate exacerbations.
  6 5,001 511
What is the optimal blood glucose target in critically ill patients? A nested cohort study
Ashraf Al-Tarifi, Nabil Abou-Shala, Hani M Tamim, Asgar H Rishu, Yaseen M Arabi
October-December 2011, 6(4):207-211
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.84774  PMID:21977065
Aims: There is an uncertainty about what constitutes an optimal level of blood glucose (BG) in critically ill patients. The objective of this study is to identify the optimal BG target for glycemic control in critically ill patients that is associated with survival benefit with the least hypoglycemia risk. Setting and Design: This is a nested cohort study within a randomized control trial conducted in a tertiary care center in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study was carried out in a single center to assess the effect of intensive insulin therapy [IIT; target BG 4.4-6.1 mmol/L (80-110 mg/dL)] versus conventional insulin therapy [CIT; target BG 10-11.1 mmol/L (180-200 mg/dL)] in a medical/surgical ICU. All patients were divided into six groups based on the mean daily BG levels. A logistic regression model was used to determine the association of BG and ICU mortality. We compared different outcomes below and above different BG thresholds of 0.1 mmol/L (2 mg/dL) increments using multivariate analyses. Statistical Analysis: Data are presented as mean ± SD or median with interquartile ranges, unless otherwise indicated. Differences between the six groups were assessed using the c΂ test. A P-value equal or less than 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. The results were expressed as adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Statistical analyses were carried out using the Statistical Analysis Software (SAS, release 8, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Results: Among six groups, the ICU mortality was least in patients with BG <8.7 mmol/L (<157 mg/dL) compared with patients with BG ≥8.7 mmol/L (≥157 mg/dL) [11.5% vs. 21.5%, P = 0.002]. When analyzed using 0.1 mmol increments in average BG, we found that mortality remained unchanged by increasing thresholds of BG up to 8.0 mmol/L (144 mg/dL) and started to rise with thresholds of BG of 8.1 mmol/L (146 mg/dL) and above. The risk of hypoglycemia was the highest with a BG threshold of 6.1 mmol/L (110 mg/dL) and gradually decreased with increasing BG levels to plateau with a BG level of 7.2 mmol/L (130 mg/dL) and higher. Conclusion: Our study suggests that a BG level of 8.1 mmol/L (146 mg/dL) and below represents an optimal level in critically ill patients.
  5 4,461 840
Sleep from an islamic perspective
Ahmed S BaHammam
October-December 2011, 6(4):187-192
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.84771  PMID:21977062
Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allβh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry.
  5 18,016 3,515
Effect of patient education on adherence to drug treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
C Incorvaia, GG Riario-Sforza
October-December 2011, 6(4):242-243
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.84783  PMID:21977074
  4 3,164 406
Venous thromboembolism-related mortality and morbidity in King Fahd General Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Abo-El-Nazar Essam, Galal Sharif, Fahad Al-Hameed
October-December 2011, 6(4):193-198
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.84772  PMID:21977063
Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious and underestimated potentially fatal disease with an effective prophylactic antithrombotic therapy that is usually underused. Objectives: The primary study objective is to determine the percentage of VTE patients who received prophylactic antithrombotic therapy according to ACCP guidelines. Secondary study objectives are determining prevalence of confirmed VTE mortality among all cause hospital mortalities, measuring adherence to anticoagulation treatment after discharge and number of VTE events among those patients. Methods: During the period from first of July 2008 till 30 of June 2009, we collected all hospital deaths, all patients with confirmed VTE diagnosis at King Fahd General Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Only patients with confirmed VTE diagnosis were included in the analysis. Results: Five hundred cases with clinical diagnosis of VTE were identified. Out of them 178 were confirmed to be VTE. 36.5% of them received prophylactic antithrombotic therapy. Case fatality rate was 20.8% representing 1.9% of hospital deaths. Case fatality rate was 31% and 3.1% for patients who did not receive thromboprophylaxis and patients who received it, respectively ( P < 0.0001). 66.3% and 33.7% of confirmed VTE cases occurred in surgical and medical patients respectively. Only 44.1% of surgical patients and 21.7% of medical patients received prophylaxis ( P < 0.01). Case fatality rate is 11% for surgical patients and 40% for medical patients (P < 0.001). Of 141 survived cases, 118 (83.7%) were adherent to anticoagulation therapy after discharge. Conclusions: VTE prophylaxis guideline is not properly implemented and extremely underutilized. Mortality from VTE is significantly higher in patients who did not receive VTE prophylaxis. In the absence of regular post-mortem practice VTE related mortality rate would be difficult to estimate and likely will be underestimated. Health authorities should enforce VTE prophylaxis guideline within the healthcare system.
  4 5,170 1,842
Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with low fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in PET/computed tomography
Ersin Günay, Aysenaz Özcan, Sibel Günay, Ebru Tatci, Atila Ihsan Keyf, Cebrail Simsek
October-December 2011, 6(4):237-240
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.84781  PMID:21977072
Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is an uncommon lung disease characterized by accumulation of intraalveolar calcifications. The disease can be diagnosed based on the radiological findings. We present a 27-year-old women with five-year history of shortness of breath. She was diagnosed with PAM due to the presence of the characteristic chest X-ray and thorax computed tomography (CT) findings. We performed 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT imaging in order to detect any evidence of inflamation in the lung before deciding an anti-inflammatory treatment. The lung regions with dense calcifications revealed low FDG uptakes (SUVmax: 2.7) and the lung regions without calcifications showed lower FDG uptakes. No further treatment modality was planned besides inhaler salbutamol. Herein, we discuss this rare entity with literature search.
  3 3,068 290
Insulin resistance, fibrinogen, homocysteine, leptin, and C-reactive protein and metabolic syndrome
Somsri Wiwanitkit, Viroj Wiwanitkit
October-December 2011, 6(4):243-243
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.84784  PMID:21977075
  2 2,350 474
Gluteal abscess: An unusual complication of Bacille Calmette-Guérin
Hakan Buyukoglan, Inci Gulmez, Nuri Tutar, Fatma S Oymak, Asiye Kanbay, Ramazan Demir
October-December 2011, 6(4):235-236
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.84780  PMID:21977071
Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been used extensively as a vaccine against human tuberculosis. Herein, we describe gluteal tuberculosis abscess due to inadvertently injected BCG a patient with bladder cancer.
  1 4,898 455
A 38-year-old man with lung cysts
Dipti Gothi, Jyotsna M Joshi
October-December 2011, 6(4):231-234
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.84779  PMID:21977070
  1 5,261 568
The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Saudi Arabia: Where do we stand?
Mohammed Al Ghobain
October-December 2011, 6(4):185-186
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.84770  PMID:21977061
  - 4,424 10,715

October-December 2011, 6(4):244-244
  - 1,586 267
Authors' reply
Ozen K Basoglu, Fulden Sarac, Sefa Sarac, Hatice Uluer, Candeger Yilmaz
October-December 2011, 6(4):243-244
  - 1,933 290
Acute respiratory damage in patients with pandemic 2009 AH1N1 influenza: Pulmonary function testing a year after?
Nozha Brahmi, Aymen M'rad, Hatem El Ghord, Nadia Kouraichi, Hafedh Thabet, Mouldi Amamou
October-December 2011, 6(4):241-242
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.84782  PMID:21977073
  - 2,613 340
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