Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
 
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   2009| October-December  | Volume 4 | Issue 4  
    Online since September 25, 2009

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Exhaled nitric oxide in diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases
Abdullah A Abba
October-December 2009, 4(4):173-181
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.56009  PMID:19881162
The analysis of biomarkers in exhaled breath constituents has recently become of great interest in the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of many respiratory conditions. Of particular interest is the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) in breath. Its measurement is noninvasive, easy and reproducible. The technique has recently been standardized by both American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society. The availability of cheap, portable and reliable equipment has made the assay possible in clinics by general physicians and, in the near future, at home by patients. The concentration of exhaled nitric oxide is markedly elevated in bronchial asthma and is positively related to the degree of esinophilic inflammation. Its measurement can be used in the diagnosis of bronchial asthma and titration of dose of steroids as well as to identify steroid responsive patients in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In primary ciliary dyskinesia, nasal NO is diagnostically low and of considerable value in diagnosis. Among lung transplant recipients, FENO can be of great value in the early detection of infection, bronchioloitis obliterans syndrome and rejection. This review discusses the biology, factors affecting measurement, and clinical application of FENO in the diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases.
  9,486 1,617 23
The novel influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic: An update
N Petrosillo, S Di Bella, CM Drapeau, E Grilli
October-December 2009, 4(4):163-172
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.56008  PMID:19881161
In the 4 months since it was first recognized, the pandemic strain of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus has spread to all continents and, after documentation of human-to-human transmission of the virus in at least three countries in two separate World Health Organization (WHO) regions, the pandemic alert was raised to level 6. The agent responsible for this pandemic, a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV), is characterized by a unique combination of gene segments that has not previously been identified among human or swine influenza A viruses. As of 31th July 2009, 168 countries and overseas territories/communities have each reported at least one laboratory-confirmed case of pandemic H1N1 infection. There have been a total of 162,380 reported cases and 1154 associated deaths. Influenza epidemics usually take off in autumn, and it is important to prepare for an earlier start this season. Estimates from Europe indicate that 230 millions Europe inhabitants will have clinical signs and symptoms of S-OIV this autumn, and 7– 35% of the clinical cases will have a fatal outcome, which means that there will be 160,000– 750,000 H1N1-related deaths. A vaccine against H1N1 is expected to be the most effective tool for controlling influenza A (H1N1) infection in terms of reducing morbidity and mortality and limiting diffusion. However, there are several issues with regard to vaccine manufacture and approval, as well as production capacity, that remain unsettled. We searched the literature indexed in PubMed as well as the websites of major international health agencies to obtain the material presented in this update on the current S-OIV pandemic.
  8,655 2,069 33
GUIDELINES
The Saudi Initiative for asthma
Mohamed S Al-Moamary, Mohamed S Al-Hajjaj, Majdy M Idrees, Mohamed O Zeitouni, Mohammed O Alanezi, Hamdan Al-Jahdali, Maha Al Dabbagh
October-December 2009, 4(4):216-233
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.56001  PMID:19881170
The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA) provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.
  9,413 1,164 15
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Autologous blood pleurodesis: A good choice in patients with persistent air leak
Ufuk Cobanoglu, Mehmet Melek, Yesim Edirne
October-December 2009, 4(4):182-186
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.56011  PMID:19881163
Aim: The study compares the efficiency, side effects and complications of autologous blood pleurodesis with talcum powder and tetracycline. Materials and Methods: This prospective study evaluated 50 patients with persistent air leak resulting from primary and secssondary spontaneous pneumothorax between February 2004 and March 2009. The patients inclussded 32 (64.0%) males and 18 (36.0%) females with a median age of 39 years (range 14-69 years). All cases had persistent air leak of more than seven days. Pleurodesis was performed using autologous blood in 20 (40.0%) patients, talc powder in 19 (38.0%) patients and tetracycline in 11 (22.0%) patients through a chest tube. Air leak cessation times after pleurodesis, side effects and pulmonary function tests (PFT) in the first and third months were measured. Results: Recurrent primary spontaneous pneumothorax was the cause of persistent air leak in all cases. Air leaks were expiratory only in 54.0% of cases. We obtained a success rate of 75.0% using autologous blood, 84.2% using talc powder and 63.6% using tetracycline. Mean air leak termination interval was significantly (P < 0.001) shorter in patients treated with autologous blood in comparison to talc powder and tetracycline. We observed a significant (P < 0.05) decline in PFT in patients treated with talc powder compared with tetracycline and autologous blood. Vital capacity, FVC and FEV1 were significantly lower in patients treated with tetracycline compared with autologous blood. Conclusion: This study shows that autologous blood pleurodesis compared to talc powder and tetracycline is related with shorter leak cessation time and less pulmonary function decline in patients with persistent air leak. We think further randomized clinical trials of pleurodesis as treatment could increase its use in thorax surgery by demonstrating the safety and the efficacy of this procedure.
  7,601 1,070 8
Incidence and risk factors predisposing anastomotic leak after transhiatal esophagectomy
Abbas Tabatabai, Mozaffar Hashemi, Gholamreza Mohajeri, Mojtaba Ahmadinejad, Ishfaq Abass Khan, Saeid Haghdani
October-December 2009, 4(4):197-200
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.56012  PMID:19881165
Objective: The objective of our study was to identify the incidence and risk factors of anastomotic leaks following transhiatal esophagectomy (THE). Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 61 patients treated for carcinoma of the esophagus between 2006 and 2007. We examined the following variables: age, gender, preoperative cardiovascular function, intraoperative complications such as hypotension, arrhythmia, mediastinal manipulation period, blood loss volume, blood transfusion, duration of surgery, postoperative complications such as anastomotic leak, anastomotic stricture, requiring reoperation, respiratory complications, and total morbidity and mortality. Variables were compared between the patients with and without anastomotic leak. T-test for quantitative variables and Chi-square test for qualitative variables were used to find out any relationship. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Out of 61 patients, anastomotic leaks occurred in 13 (21.3%). Weight loss, forced expiratory volume (FEV1) < 2 lit, preoperative albumin, intaoperative blood loss volume, and respiratory complication were associated with the anastomotic leak in patients undergoing THE. Anastomotic leaks were the leading cause of postoperative morbidity, anastomotic stricture, and reoperation. Conclusion: Anastomotic leakage is a life-threatening postoperative complication. Careful attention to the factors contributing to the development of a leak can reduce the incidence of anastomotic complications postoperatively.
  7,201 956 21
BRIEF REPORT
A case-control study of tobacco smoking and tuberculosis in India
R Prasad, Suryakant , R Garg, S Singhal, R Dawar, GG Agarwal
October-December 2009, 4(4):208-210
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.56007  PMID:19881167
Objectives: To evaluate the role of smoking as a risk factor for the development of pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: A total of 111 sputum smear-positive patients of pulmonary tuberculosis and 333 controls matched for age and sex were interviewed according to a predesigned questionnaire. Results: The adjusted odd ratio of the association between tobacco smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis was 3.8 (95% confidence interval, 2.0 to 7.0; P value, < 0001). A positive relationship between pack years, body mass index and socioeconomic class was also observed. Conclusion: There is a positive association between tobacco smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis.
  6,337 842 10
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of recently validated non- invasive formula using basic lung functions as new screening tool for pulmonary hypertension in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients
Maha K Ghanem, Hoda A Makhlouf, Gamal R Agmy, Hisham M.K Imam, Doaa A Fouad
October-December 2009, 4(4):187-196
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.56013  PMID:19881164
Background: A prediction formula for mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) using standard lung function measurement has been recently validated to screen for pulmonary hypertension (PH) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients. Objective: To test the usefulness of this formula as a new non invasive screening tool for PH in IPF patients. Also, to study its correlation with patients' clinical data, pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gases (ABGs) and other commonly used screening methods for PH including electrocardiogram (ECG), chest X ray (CXR), trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) and computerized tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study of 37 IPF patients from tertiary hospital. The accuracy of MPAP estimation was assessed by examining the correlation between the predicted MPAP using the formula and PH diagnosed by other screening tools and patients' clinical signs of PH. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the prediction of PH using cut off point of 21 or 25 mm Hg (P = 0.24). The formula-predicted MPAP greater than 25 mm Hg strongly correlated in the expected direction with O2 saturation (r = −0.95, P < 0.000), partial arterial O2 tension (r = −0.71, P < 0.000), right ventricular systolic pressure measured by TTE (r = 0.6, P < 0.000) and hilar width on CXR (r = 0.31, P = 0.03). Chest symptoms, ECG and CTPA signs of PH poorly correlated with the same formula (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The prediction formula for MPAP using standard lung function measurements is a simple non invasive tool that can be used as TTE to screen for PH in IPF patients and select those who need right heart catheterization.
  4,325 757 5
Prognostic factors and long term results of neo adjuvant therapy followed by surgery in stage IIIA N2 non-small cell lung cancer patients
Jing Li, Chun-Hua Dai, Shun-Bing Shi, Ping Chen, Li-Chao Yu, Jian-Rong Wu
October-December 2009, 4(4):201-207
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.56010  PMID:19881166
Background: Prognosis of stage IIIA N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains poor despite the changes in therapeutic strategies. Objectives: To assess long term results of neo adjuvant therapy followed by surgery for patients with stage IIIA N2 NSCLC and to analyze factors influencing survival. Materials and Methods: The methods adopted include: Retrospective review of medical records of 91 patients with stage IIIA N2 NSCLC, who received neo adjuvant therapy followed by surgery; collection of information on demographic information, staging procedure, preoperative therapy, clinical response, type of resection, pathologic response of tumor, status of lymph nodes and adjuvant chemotherapy; survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier and calculation of prognostic factors using log-rank and Cox regression model. Results: All patients received a platinum-based chemotherapy and 23 (29.1%) had an associated radiotherapy. Eighty four patients underwent thoracotomy. Median survival was 26 months (95%CI, 22.6-30.8 months) with three and five year survival rates of 31.6 and 20.9%, respectively. Prognostic factors for survival on univariate analysis was clinical response (P = 0.032), complete resection (P = 0.002), pathologic tumor response ( P < 0.001), and lymph nodal down staging (P = 0.001). Multivariate analyses identified complete resection, pathologic tumor response and lymph nodal down staging as independent prognostic factors. Conclusion: Survival of patients with stage IIIA N2 NSCLC who received neo adjuvant therapy is significantly influenced by clinical response, complete resection, pathologic tumor response, and lymph nodal down staging. These results can be helpful in guiding standard clinical practice and evaluating the outcome of neo adjuvant therapy followed by surgery in patients with stage IIIA N2 NSCLC.
  3,810 837 10
EDITORIAL
Asthma guidelines: Global to local
J Mark FitzGerald
October-December 2009, 4(4):161-162
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.56006  PMID:19881160
  3,279 930 -
CASE REPORTS
Mycobacterium chelonae empyema with bronchopleural fistula in an immunocompetent patient
Siraj Wali
October-December 2009, 4(4):213-215
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.56004  PMID:19881169
Mycobacterium chelonae is one of the rapidly growing mycobacteria that rarely cause lung disease . M chelonae more commonly causes skin and soft tissue infections primarily in immunosuppressed individuals. Thoracic empyema caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria and complicated with bronchopleural fistula is rarely reported, especially in immunocompetent patients. In this article we report the first immunocompetent Arabian patient presented with M chelonae- related empyema with bronchopleural fistula which mimics, clinically and radiologically, empyema caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  3,410 562 3
Penetrating chest trauma secondary to falling on metallic (iron) bar
Hamid Al-Sayed, Hasan Sandogji, Abdullah Allam
October-December 2009, 4(4):211-212
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.56005  PMID:19881168
Case of a 27-year-old man who sustained penetrating chest injury caused by a metallic (iron) bar projecting from a pillar of a construction after he fell down from a height.
  2,743 533 1
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