Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
 
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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2007| July-September  | Volume 2 | Issue 3  
 
 
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BRIEF REPORT
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis in non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in an endemic region
Mustafa Kursat Ozvaran, Reha Baran, Meltem Tor, Ilknur Dilek, Dilay Demiryontar, Sibel Arinc, Nil Toker, Efsun Ugur Chousein, Ozlem Sogukpinar
July-September 2007, 2(3):118-121
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.33700  PMID:19727358
Aims: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) still constitutes an important clinical problem. We aimed to evaluate the incidence and features of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 14,266 tuberculosis patients diagnosed between January 1999 and December 2003 in a tertiary care hospital in Istanbul. As many as 2,435 patients (17.1%) with EPTB were evaluated for the incidence and features. Results: Of the 14,266 patients, 4,154 were female (29%) and 10,112 were male (71%) and were aged between 14 and 86 years with a mean age of 35 14 years. As many as 660 (17.9%) patients were diagnosed as EPTB in 1999, 568 (17.8%) in 2000, 357 (13.7%) in 2001, 462 (22%) in 2002 and 388 (14.5%) in 2003. EPTB presented most commonly as pleurisy (66%), followed by lymphadenitis (23%). Lymphadenitis and pleurisy were more commonly observed among female TB patients (60%) and among male TB patients (59%) respectively. EPTB showed a significant female predilection (26.8%) compared to male patients (13.1%). Multi-organ involvement was observed in 37 (1.5%) patients (two organs in 33 and three organs in 4). As many as 197 (8%) EPTB cases had pulmonary tuberculosis simultaneously. Conclusions: EPTB still constitutes an important clinical problem. The rates of EPTB have remained constant despite the decline in pulmonary tuberculosis cases. In the current study, we present our experience of the incidence and features of EPTB patients without HIV infection. In this study, EPTB cases constituted one-fifth of all tuberculosis cases presented to our center in the study period.
  20 6,848 797
CASE REPORT
Whistle in the bronchus
Parvaiz A Koul, Abdul Wahid, Tariq A Bhat, Tajamul Hussain
July-September 2007, 2(3):124-125
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.33702  PMID:19727360
An 18-year-old male presented with 4 weeks' history of productive cough and fever that had started 1 day after alleged ingestion of a plastic whistle. Multiple courses of antibiotics had proved ineffective. Crepitation and a localized wheeze on right chest were observed on clinical examination. Chest radiograph showed a right-sided pneumonitis. Bronchoscopy revealed a grayish-black foreign body in the right bronchial tree, which was retrieved and found to be the 'lost whistle.' The patient improved dramatically following the procedure.
  7 4,424 563
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Early changes in pulmonary functions after mitral valve replacement
Pankaj Saxena, Suvitesh Luthra, Rajinder Singh Dhaliwal, Surinder Singh Rana, Digambar Behera
July-September 2007, 2(3):111-117
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.33699  PMID:19727357
Background: This study evaluates changes in pulmonary functions before and after mitral valve replacement (MVR). Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients with rheumatic mitral lesions who had undergone MVR were divided into three groups, based on New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. They were evaluated for changes in pulmonary functions, preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months to find any improvements after MVR. Results: Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rates were universally found to be decreased preoperatively. Total lung capacity (TLC) and diffusion capacity (DLCO) were significantly reduced preoperatively in NYHA Class III and IV. The pulmonary functions further declined at 1 week after surgery. Except for FVC in NYHA Class IV (32.3% improvement, P < 0.05), the changes were statistically insignificant. Conclusions: Pulmonary functions deteriorate immediately after surgery and then recover gradually over a period of 3 months. However, they remain below the predicted values.
  5 6,841 657
CASE REPORT
Pancreaticopleural fistula and mediastinal pseudocyst: An unusual presentation of acute pancreatitis
Nagaraja Moorthy, A Raveesha, K Prabhakar
July-September 2007, 2(3):122-123
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.33701  PMID:19727359
We report a case of an adult male who presented with recurrent massive hemorrhagic pleural effusion with a mediastinal cyst due to an unusual complication of pancreatic pseudocyst-like pancreaticopleural fistula and a mediastinal pseudocyst. The clinical presentation was misleading since the patient presented with predominantly respiratory complaints. High index of suspicion of pancreatic etiology in recurrent massive hemorrhagic pleural effusion may lead to the diagnosis.
  4 4,625 601
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
A comparison of peak expiratory flow measured from forced vital capacity and peak flow meter manoeuvres in healthy volunteers
Dipti Agarwal, Prem Parkash Gupta, Dipti Agarwal, Prem Parkash Gupta
July-September 2007, 2(3):103-106
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.33697  PMID:19727355
Background: Spirometry measures the mechanical function of lungs, chest wall and respiratory muscles by assessing the total volume of air exhaled from total lung capacity to residual volume. Spirometry and peak flow measurements have usually been carried out on separate equipments using different expiratory maneuvers. Aims: The present study was carried out to determine whether there is a significant difference between peak expiratory flow (PEF) derived from a short sharp exhalation (PEF maneuver) and that derived from a full forced vital capacity (FVC) maneuver in healthy volunteers. Settings: A medical college and tertiary level hospital. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out during the period from January 2006 to July 2006. The study included 80 healthy volunteers with no coexisting illnesses, who were in the 15-45 years age group and belonging to either sex. They were asked to perform two sets of PEF and FVC maneuvers using the same turbine spirometer; the order was randomly assigned.th Statistical Analysis: The difference between PEF obtained from a peak flow maneuver (PEFPF) and that obtained from a forced vital capacity maneuver (PEFVC) in healthy volunteers was analyzed separately for males and females, as well as for both groups combined, and statistical significance of its correlations with study data parameters was analyzed.th Results: The difference between PEF obtained from a peak flow maneuver (PEFPF) and that obtained from a forced vital capacity maneuver (PEFVC) was statistically significant ( P < 0.001) in males and in females separately and also for both groups combined. PEFPF (517.25 83.22 liters/min) was significantly greater than PEFVC (511.09 83.54 liters/min), as found on combined group mean analysis. However, the difference was small (6.16 + 7.09 liters/min). Conclusions: FVC maneuver can be used over spirometers to detect the PEF; and on follow-up subsequently, the same maneuver should be used to derive PEF. If we are using a peak flow maneuver subsequently, corrections are required to compensate for the difference due to the different maneuver.
  3 9,928 660
Role of airway lactoperoxidase in scavenging of hydrogen peroxide damage in asthma
Amina Hamed Ahmad Al Obaidi
July-September 2007, 2(3):107-110
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.33698  PMID:19727356
Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) that is mainly generated by neutrophils and eosinophils in asthma is known to be damaging to the airway and to contribute to airway inflammation. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution and the role of lactoperoxidase in scavenging airway hydrogen peroxide, in order to propose a therapeutic approach for asthma. The study was an open clinical trial. Twenty-five nonsmoking asthmatic patients were included in the study. Of them, 16 patients (64%) were male and 9 (36%) were female, with age ranging from 29 to 48 years (45.13 4.6). Of the 25 patients included in the study, only 16 patients completed the study; and they were eligible for analyses. Exhaled breath condensate was collected from all patients at the time of entering the study; and 2, 4 and 8 weeks later. All patients received dapson as a lactoperoxidase inhibitor at a dose of 50 mg daily for 8 weeks. The study was conducted during the period from January 2006 to end of October 2006. H 2 O 2 concentration was determined by an enzymatic assay. Determination of exhaled breath condensate for hydrogen peroxide concentration after 8 weeks of dapson usage indicated an increase (1.05 0.36 M; 95% CI, 0.89-1.21) as compared to that at baseline ( P < 0.0001), 2 weeks ( P < 0.001) and 4 weeks ( P > 0.05). The increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath condensate after inhibition of lactoperoxidase by dapson advocates a potential role for lactoperoxidase in scavenging of hydrogen peroxide in asthmatic airway.
  3 5,871 528
REVIEW ARTICLE
Update on pleural diseases - 2007
Ayman Bishay, Suhail Raoof, Adebayo Esan, Arthur Sung, Siraj Wali, Leonard Y Lee, Liziamma George, Anthony Saleh, Michael Baumann, Ayman Bishay, Suhail Raoof, Adebayo Esan, Arthur Sung, Siraj Wali, Leonard Y Lee, Liziamma George, Anthony Saleh, Michael Baumann
July-September 2007, 2(3):128-142
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.33704  PMID:19727362
Background : New information is available on pleural diseases. The authors selected articles to make recommendations on diagnostic and treatment aspects of pleural diseases. Materials and Methods: Eleven articles published in the English language between 2004 and 2007 were chosen. The basis of selection of the articles was the impact on daily practice, change in prior thinking of a disease process or specific treatment modality, as well as proper design and execution of the study. 5-amino-laevulinic acid with fluorescent light combined with white light may allow further diagnostic yield in undiagnosed pleural disease. FDG-PET may allow prognostication of patients with pleural tumors. Utilizing ultrasound by trained Emergency Department physicians is a rapid and effective technique to evaluate non-traumatic pleural effusions in symptomatic patients. Serum osteopontin levels may distinguish patients exposed to asbestos with benign disease from those with pleural mesothelioma. Administration of streptokinase in patients with empyema does not need for surgical drainage, length of hospital stay, or mortality as compared to conventional treatment with chest tube drainage and intravenous antibiotics. Silver nitrate may be an alternative agent to talc for producing pleurodesis. Routine use of graded talc (50% particles greater than 25 microns) is recommended to reduce the morbidity associated with talc pleurodesis. Study design does not permit us to conclude that aspiration of spontaneous pneumothorax is as effective as chest tube drainage. Pleural catheter may prove to be an important palliative modality in treating debilitated patients or patients with trapped lung who show symptomatic improvement with drainage; however, at the present time, these catheters cannot be considered a first line treatment option for patients with malignant pleural effusion. One of the studies reviewed showed no significant difference in tract metastasis in patients with malignant mesothelioma undergoing an invasive pleural procedure with or without irradiation to the procedure site. However, the design of the trial does not allow us to make this conclusion at the present time.
  3 10,771 1,433
CASE REPORT
Mediastinal tuberculosis presenting as traction diverticulum of the esophagus
Anurag Rastogi, Dinesh Sarda, Paras Kothari, Bharati Kulkarni
July-September 2007, 2(3):126-127
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.33703  PMID:19727361
A 7-year-old male presented with history of low-grade fever, epigastric pain and dysphagia. Ultrasound of abdomen and thorax revealed presence of paraesophageal lymphadenopathy. 'Barium swallow' and computerized tomography scan thorax with oral contrast suggested a provisional diagnosis of paraesophageal diverticulum. Esophagoscopy was normal. Endoscopic ultrasonography with biopsy confirmed tuberculosis. The patient was started on four-drug antitubercular treatment.
  2 5,166 510
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Blocking leukotrienes optimize asthma control: The BLOC survey
Majdy M Idrees, Mohamed S Al Moamary
July-September 2007, 2(3):99-102
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.33696  PMID:19727354
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate asthma control after the introduction of a leukotriene modifier (Montelukast), in addition to the current controller asthma therapies, in patients with inadequately controlled mild-to-moderate persistent asthma. Asthma control and patient perception were assessed prior to, and 4 weeks after, the introduction of Montelukast, and the pre-introduction and post-introduction results were compared. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study collected information on 1,490 eligible adult asthmatic patients in Saudi Arabia. The eligibility criteria included patients aged 15 years or more with symptomatic mild-to-moderate persistent asthma despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids with or without long-acting beta agonist; also, the patient should attend the initial visit and follow-up visits after at least 4 weeks. Results: Of the 1,490 eligible patients, 79.5% received inhaled corticosteroids alone, and the remaining 20.5% received combination of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting bronchodilator. Despite the treatment with daily controller medications, asthma symptoms persisted in more than two-thirds of the study population. Upon adding Montelukast, more than 80% of patients reported improvement in symptoms, which was consistent in all patients irrespective of corticosteroid type or dose (stratum) or the addition of long-acting β2-agonist. At the follow-up visit, 92.2% of patients reported that they felt better on Montelukast. Conclusion: Leukotriene modifier Montelukast has significant additive benefits in the management of patients who suffer from mild-to-moderate asthma and who are inadequately controlled on inhaled corticosteroids therapy with or without long-acting bronchodilator.
  2 5,123 638
POSTGRADUATE CLINICAL SECTION
A rare cause for intrathoracic mass in an elderly male
KA Vishak, KB Gireesh, Prasad Shiva, SK Jayarama
July-September 2007, 2(3):143-144
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.33705  PMID:19727363
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