Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 208-214

Clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis


1 Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Cardiac Science, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Esam H Alhamad
Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, College of Medicine, King Saud University, 38, P.O. Box 2925, Riyadh 11461
Saudi Arabia
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DOI: 10.4103/atm.ATM_230_20

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BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a common subtype of interstitial lung disease (ILD). Information about the associated comorbidities and predictors of survival among Saudi patients with IPF is limited. AIMS: The aim of the study was to determine the clinical characteristics, associated comorbidities, and prognostic factors that impact IPF survival. METHODS: Consecutive IPF patients diagnosed in our ILD center were included. The information analyzed included demographics, physiological parameters, and associated comorbidities, among others. Cox regression models were used to identify independent predictors of survival. RESULTS: The data of 212 patients with IPF were available for the analysis. The mean age was 66.4 years, and 70.8% were male. The mean time between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 11.6 months (range: 1–48 months). Common comorbid conditions noted in the IPF cohort included pulmonary hypertension (49.6%), diabetes mellitus (43.2%), hypertension (42.2%), osteoporosis (40.4%), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (32.1%). Acute exacerbation (AE) was noted in 21.2% of the IPF patients. AE, final saturation <85%, walking distance <300 m, and antifibrotic therapy were independent predictors of survival. CONCLUSIONS: In our IPF cohort, we found that there was a significant delay between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis. Moreover, we identified multiple comorbidities associated with IPF, which increases the burden on both IPF patients and clinicians. Importantly, AE and the use of antifibrotic therapy were independent predictors of survival. It is of paramount importance for clinicians to diagnose IPF at an early stage, refer patients to experienced centers, recognize comorbidities, and initiate antifibrotic therapy regardless of the underlying disease severity.


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