Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
 
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   2010| January-March  | Volume 5 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 15, 2010

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiac arrhythmias
Ahmad Salah Hersi
January-March 2010, 5(1):10-17
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.58954  PMID:20351955
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which includes obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as its most extreme variant, is characterized by intermittent episodes of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway, leading to cessation of breathing while asleep. Cardiac arrhythmias are common problems in OSA patients, although the true prevalence and clinical relevance of cardiac arrhythmias remains to be determined. The presence and complexity of tachyarrhythmias and bradyarrhythmias may influence morbidity, mortality and quality of life for patients with OSA. Although the exact mechanisms underlying the link between OSA and cardiac arrhythmias are not well established, they could be some of the same proposed mechanisms relating OSA to different cardiovascular diseases, such as repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep, which leads to markedly reduced or absent airflow, followed by oxyhemoglobin desaturation, persistent inspiratory efforts against an occluded airway and termination by arousal from sleep. These mechanisms elicit a variety of autonomic, hemodynamic, humoral and neuroendocrine responses that evoke acute and chronic changes in cardiovascular function. However, despite substantial research effort, the goals of determining in advance which patients will respond most favorably to certain treatment options (such as continuous positive airway pressure, tracheostomy or cardioversion) and the developing alternative treatments remain largely elusive. Therefore, this literature review aims to summarize a broad array of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between OSA and cardiac arrhythmias and the extent of this association from an epidemiological perspective, thereby attempting to assess the effects of OSA treatment on the presence of cardiac arrhythmias.
  23 10,334 1,643
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Home-based pulmonary rehabilitation program: Effect on exercise tolerance and quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients
Maha Ghanem, Enace Abd ELaal, Mogedda Mehany, Kawthar Tolba
January-March 2010, 5(1):18-25
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.58955  PMID:20351956
Background: A key component in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), the corner stone of which is exercise training. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the effect of a two-months, home-based PR program with outpatient supervision every two weeks, on exercise tolerance and health-related quality of life (HRQL) using Arabic-translated standardized generic and specific questionnaires in COPD patients recently recovered from acute exacerbation, Design: Randomized clinical trial. Setting and Subjects: A total of 39 COPD patients who recovered from acute exacerbation were randomly allocated either a two-month home-based PR program in addition to standard medical therapy or standard medical therapy alone in the period between July 2008 and March 2009. Methods: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs), six-minute walk distance (6-MWD) test, Arabic-translated chronic respiratory disease questionnaire-self administered standardized format (CRQ-SAS) and quality of life scale Short Form (SF-36) were compared between 25 patients with moderate to severe COPD who underwent a two-month PR program (group 1) and 14 COPD patients who did not (group 2). Results: Group 1 showed significant improvement in the 6-MWD, and HRQL scores at two months compared with the usual care patients in group 2 (P less than 0.05). Improvement in both CRQ-SAS and SF-36 scores were statistically significant and comparable in group 1. Conclusion: The supervised, post discharge, two-month home-based PR program is an effective non pharmacological intervention in the management of stable patients with COPD. The 6-MWD is a simple, inexpensive and safe test to assess physical and functional capabilities among COPD patients. HRQL can be measured in patients with COPD either by disease-specific tools that have been specifically designed for use in patients with respiratory system disorders or by generic HRQL tools that can be used across populations with a variety of medical conditions. The Arabic-translated CRQ-SAS is a new tool for assessment of Arabic-speaking patients with chronic respiratory diseases.
  18 9,154 1,822
BRIEF REPORT
Performance of QuantiFERON-TB Gold test compared to tuberculin skin test in detecting latent tuberculosis infection in HIV- positive individuals in Iran
Masoud Mardani, Payam Tabarsi, Zohre Mohammadtaheri, Ehsan Chitsaz, Banafsheh Farokhzad, Fatemeh Hadavand, Latif Gachkar, Kambiz Nemati, Mohammad R Masjedi
January-March 2010, 5(1):43-46
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.58959  PMID:20351960
Background: There is limited data about the performance of QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G) test in detecting latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in our region. We intended to determine the performance of QFT-G compared to conventional tuberculin skin test (TST) in detecting LTBI in HIV-positive individuals in Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in a HIV clinic in Tehran, Iran in April 2007. A total of 50 consecutive HIV-positive patients, not currently affected with active tuberculosis (TB), were recruited; 43 (86%) were male. The mean age was 38 ± 7.2 years (21-53). All had history of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination. A TST with purified protein derivative (PPD) and whole-blood interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) in reaction to ESAT-6 and CFP-10 antigens was performed and measured by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). The agreement between TST and QFT-G results were analyzed using Kappa test. Results: A total of 36 (72%) patients had negative and 14 (28%) revealed positive TST. For QFT-G, 20 (40%) tested positive, 19 (38%) tested negative, and the results in 11 cases (22%) were indeterminate. A total of 14 (28%) patients had a CD4 count of <200. Of the 14, TST + group, 12 had QFT-G +, only one case TST+/QFT-G-, and QFT-G was indeterminate in one TST positive case. Of the 36 patients with negative TST tests, 8 (22%) had positive GFT-G and 10 (28%) yielded indeterminate results. There was no association between a positive TST and receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) or absolute CD4 counts. Similarly, the association between QFT-G results and receiving HAART or CD4 counts was not significant (P = 0.06). Although TST results were not significantly different in patients with CD4 <200 vs. CD4 >200 (P = 0.295), association between QFT-G results and CD4 cutoff of 200 reached statistical significance (P = 0.027). Agreement Kappa coefficient between TST and QFT-G was 0.54 (Kappa = 0.54, 95% CI = 38.4-69.6, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Detecting LTBI in HIV-positive individuals showed moderate agreement between QFT-G and LTBI in our study. Interestingly, our findings revealed that nontuberculous mycobacteria and prior BCG vaccination have minimal influence on TST results in HIV patients in Iran.
  14 7,941 977
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Percutaneous tracheostomy in critically ill patients: 24 months experience at a tertiary care hospital in United Arab Emirates
Raees Ahmed, Sherif R Rady, Javed Iqbal Mohammad Siddique, Mobeen Iqbal
January-March 2010, 5(1):26-29
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.58956  PMID:20351957
Objective: We assessed the safety and complications related to percutaneous tracheostomy (PCT) without bronchoscopic guidance in our intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: The prospective data over a period of 24 months were collected for patients who underwent PCT. Major, minor and long-term complications were recorded. The parameters recorded were: age, gender, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on the day of tracheostomy, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE) score, and predicted mortality based on score on admission and on the day of procedure, number of days on ventilator before and after the procedure, total number of days in the hospital before the final outcome, number of successful decannulations and mortality. The patients were stratified in two groups of survivors and nonsurvivors. Results: A total of 117 patients underwent PCT. Overall mean GCS and APACHE-II scores before PCT were 7 ± 3 and 16 ± 5, respectively. The only significant difference was APACHE-II score and the predicted mortality based on APACHE-II score on the day of PCT, which was higher amongst the nonsurvivors (P = 0.008 and P = 0.006). All 57 (49%) survivors were successfully decannulated with mean post tracheostomy days of 24 ± 15. The major complication observed was three episodes of major bleeding. Only six patients had an episode of desaturation during the procedure and there were three episode of accidental puncturing of endotracheal (ET) tube pressure cuff. During subsequent follow-up in hospital, six patients developed stomal cellulitis. Conclusions: PCT without bronchoscopic guidance can be performed safely by carefully selecting patients and having an experienced team High APACHE score on the day of procedure may lead to poor outcome.
  11 4,743 679
Lung cancer at a university hospital in Saudi Arabia: A four-year prospective study of clinical, pathological, radiological, bronchoscopic, and biochemical parameters
Omer S Alamoudi
January-March 2010, 5(1):30-36
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.58957  PMID:20351958
Objectives and Background: Lung cancer accounts for 4% of all newly diagnosed cancers in Saudi Arabia. The pattern of presentation is unknown. The objectives of this study were to assess the clinical, radiological, pathological, biochemical and bronchoscopic abnormalities in lung cancer patients and to compare our findings with those reported in the literature. Methods: A total of 114 patients with proven lung cancer were selected for the study. A questionnaire concerning patients' demographic data was obtained; the abnormalities and the cell types of lung cancer were recorded prospectively in each subject. Results: A total of 114 patients with lung cancer were studied. Mean age ± SD was (59.8 ± 10.8) years, and (71.1%) were smokers and 95.1% of them were male, (90.1%) smoked >20 pack/yr (96.2%) for 20 years or more. Cough (76.3%) and clubbing (40.4%) were the most common symptom and physical abnormality respectively. The right lung (64.9%) was more commonly affected than the left (37.7%). Metastases were present in (49.1%) at presentation. The right and left upper bronchi (24% vs. 16%) were the mostly affected. Hypercalcemia was more common in squamous cell, while hyponatremia was more common in adenocarcinoma, and small cell. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common cell type (51.8%) and significantly associated with smoking (P ≤ 0.001) Conclusion: Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common cell type, and significantly associated with smoking. The incidence of metastasis was high at presentation. The right lung and right upper bronchus were often affected. Hypercalcemia and hyponatremia were the most common biochemical abnormalities.
  8 4,457 689
REVIEW ARTICLES
Portopulmonary hypertension
Sarfraz Saleemi
January-March 2010, 5(1):5-9
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.58953  PMID:20351954
Portopulmoanry hypertension (POPH) is a form of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with portal hypertension with or without underlying chronic liver disease. POPH is increasingly recognized and recent evidence suggests that it is one of the leading causes of PAH. The pathophysiology of POPH is poorly understood although the pathological changes in pulmonary vasculature in advanced POPH are similar to those seen in idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. The prognosis in patients with liver disease who also suffer from significant POPH is considered to be poor. Higher degree of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) may preclude a patient from liver transplant as mortality in these patients is high. The treatment with vasodilator therapy has shown to improve both hemodynamics and clinical outcome in POPH in retrospective studies and in some case series. The aim of medical management is to bring PAP <35 mmHg that may make a patient with POPH and advanced liver disease eligible for liver transplant, which otherwise would have been denied because of high PAP.
  5 6,186 1,597
CASE REPORTS
Splenic abscess as a paradoxical response to chemotherapy in tuberculous pleural effusion
Ramakant Dixit, Paras Nuwal, Manoj Arya
January-March 2010, 5(1):50-51
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.58961  PMID:20351962
We report a rare case of tuberculous pleural effusion that developed multiple splenic abscesses after antituberculosis chemotherapy. She responded to addition of oral corticosteroid to antituberculosis regimen. The relevant literature, regarding pathogenesis and clinical importance of recognizing a paradoxical response, is discussed.
  4 2,738 537
COMMENTARY
Rapid response systems in acute hospital care
Saad Al-Qahtani, Hasan M Al-Dorzi
January-March 2010, 5(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.58952  PMID:20351953
  2 4,624 948
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Scale of dyspnea in COPD: User friendly?
Viroj Wiwanitkit
January-March 2010, 5(1):55-55
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.58963  PMID:20351965
  2 1,693 429
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Association and symptom characteristics of irritable bowel syndrome among bronchial asthma patients in Kuwait
Radhakrishna Panicker, Nermina Arifhodzic, Mona Al Ahmad, Seham Ahmed Ali
January-March 2010, 5(1):37-42
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.58958  PMID:20351959
Context : Excess prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in asthma has been reported, suggesting a link between these two conditions. Aims: To investigate the association between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and asthma, and explore the symptoms of IBS among asthma patients in Kuwait. Settings and Design: Case control study. Methods: In a tertiary center, for allergy and asthma, 138 patients aged 20-65 years, with asthma, diagnosed clinically and by spirometry,were compared with 145 healthy, non-asthmatic controls matched for age, gender and nationality. Cases and controls completed a self-administered questionnaire of irritable bowel syndrome diagnosis (ROME II criteria). Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using SPSS software, and proportions were tested with Chi-square or Fisher's test. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) were calculated to identify the associated risk factors. The demographic variables were selected for logistic regression analysis. Results : A significantly large proportion (39.13%) of asthmatics had IBS as compared to 7.93% controls (P < 0.001). A higher proportion of females with IBS were observed in cases and controls (74%, 61.54%). IBS was seen in 87% cases using inhalers, and in 13% with additional oral theophylline (P < 0.001). As many as 66.6% cases, had IBS with relatively short duration of asthma (1-5 years, P < 000). Predominant symptoms of IBS in asthmatics were abdominal discomfort or distension (64.8% vs. 11.5%), (P < 0.000, OR = 14.1; 95%CI: 3.748-53.209), bloated feeling of abdomen (74.1% vs. 34.62% (P < 0.001, OR = 5.38; 95%CI:1.96-14.84)), increased frequency of stools (63%, P < 0.006). Conclusions: Irritable bowel syndrome in asthmatics was significantly high, more in the female asthmatics. Abdominal discomfort, persistent bloated feeling, increased frequency of passing stools were the most common IBS symptoms observed.
  2 4,427 763
CASE REPORTS
Thoracoscopic enucleation of esophageal leiomyoma in patient with men I syndrome
Waleed N Saleh, Ahmed Bamosa, Hadi Al-Mutairi, Khaled M Al-Kattan
January-March 2010, 5(1):47-49
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.58960  PMID:20351961
Minimal invasive thoracic surgery is growing rapidly and may become the standard of care for certain diseases. Its benefits over traditional surgery, including reduced morbidities and hospital stay, have been well established in several reports. We herein report a case of midesophageal leiomyoma in a patient with MEN I syndrome successfully enucleated by thoracoscopy highlighting the technical details of the procedure.
  1 2,812 463
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial infection should be ruled out in Mycobacterium chelonae empyema
Luis Ignacio Gonzalez-Granado
January-March 2010, 5(1):55-55
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.58964  PMID:20351964
  - 1,594 392
Author's reply
Siraj Wali
January-March 2010, 5(1):55-56
PMID:20351966
  - 1,350 319
Bilateral sternoclavicular joint tubercular cold abscess
KK Pandita, Rajesh Sharma, Sandeep Dogra, Sarla Pandita
January-March 2010, 5(1):56-57
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.58966  PMID:20351967
  - 3,085 448
POSTGRADUATE CLINICAL SECTION
Endobronchial mass in an elderly smoker
Roman Dutta, Ghan Shyam Pangtey, Ruchika Gupta, Arvind Kumar
January-March 2010, 5(1):52-54
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.58962  PMID:20351963
  - 2,820 471
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