Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
 
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   2007| January-March  | Volume 2 | Issue 1  
 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Empyema thoracis: A clinical study
Preetam Rajgopal Acharya, Kusum V Shah
January-March 2007, 2(1):14-17
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.30356  PMID:19724669
Background: Empyema thoracis is a disease that, despite centuries of study, still causes significant morbidity and mortality. Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the age-sex profile, symptomatology, microbiologic findings, etiology and the management and treatment outcome in a tertiary care hospital. Settings and Design: A prospective study of empyema thoracis was conducted on 40 consecutive patients with empyema thoracis admitted to the tuberculosis and chest diseases ward of a teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: The demographic data, clinical presentation, microbiological findings, etiology, the clinical course and management were recorded as per a planned pro forma and analyzed. Results: The peak age was in the range of 21-40 years, the male-to-female ratio was 3.4:1.0 and the left pleura was more commonly affected than the right pleura. Risk factors include pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, smoking, diabetes mellitus and pneumonia. Etiology of empyema was tubercular in 65% cases and nontubercular in 35% cases. Gram-negative organisms were cultured in 11 cases (27.5%). Two patients received antibiotics with repeated thoracentesis only, intercostal chest tube drainage was required in 38 cases (95%) and more aggressive surgery was performed on 2 patients. The average duration for which the chest tube was kept in the complete expansion cases was 22.3 days. Conclusion: It was concluded that all cases of simple empyema with thin pus and only those cases of simple empyema with thick pus where size of empyema is small should be managed by aspiration/s. Cases failed by the above method, all cases of simple empyema with thick pus and with moderate to large size of empyema and all cases of empyema with bronchopleural fistula should be managed by intercostal drainage tube connected to water seal. It was also observed that all cases of empyema complicated by bronchopleural fistula were difficult to manage and needed major surgery.
  11,035 1,265 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
New insights into the pathophysiology of the small airways in asthma
Qutayba Hamid, Meri K Tulic
January-March 2007, 2(1):28-33
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.30361  PMID:19724673
Asthma is a lung disease characterized by inflammation and remodeling of the airways, which leads to airflow obstruction and symptoms of wheeze, chest tightness, cough and dyspnea. It is now widely accepted that airway inflammation and remodeling occur not only in the central airways but also in the small airways and even in the lung parenchyma. Inflammation of the distal lung can be observed even in mild asthmatics with normal or noncompromised lung function. Moreover, the small airways and the lung parenchyma can produce many Th2 cytokines and chemokines involved in initiation and perpetuation of the inflammatory process. In addition, the distal parts of the lung have been recognized as a predominant site of airflow obstruction in asthmatics. In fact, the inflammation at this distal site has been described as more severe when compared to the large airway inflammation, and evidence of remodeling in the lung periphery is emerging. Recognition of asthma as a disease of the entire respiratory tract has an important clinical significance, highlighting the need to also consider the distal lung as a target in any therapeutic strategy for effective treatment of this disease.
  9,433 1,131 12
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Can clinical factors be determinants of bone metastases in non-small cell lung cancer ?
Ahmet Ursavas, Mehmet Karadag, Esra Uzaslan, Erkan Rodoplu, Ezgi Demirdogen, Basak Burgazlioglu, R Oktay Gozu
January-March 2007, 2(1):9-13
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.30355  PMID:19724668
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations among symptoms, laboratory findings of bone metastasis and whole body bone scanning (WBBS) and the frequency of occurrence of bone metastases materials and methods:Hundred and six patients who were diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) between June 2001 and September 2005 were investigated retrospectively. Bone pain, detection of bone tenderness on physical examination, hypercalcemia and increased serum alkaline phosphatase were accepted clinical factors of bone metastases. Presence of multiple asymmetric lesions in WBBS was also accepted as bone metastases. Subjects whose clinical factors and WBBS indicated doubtful bone metastases were evaluated with magnetic resonance and/or biopsy. Results:Occurrence of bone metastases was 31.1% among all patients. Bone metastases were determined in 21 (52.5%) of 40 patients who had at least one clinical factor. Asymptomatic bone metastases without any clinical factors were established in 11.3% of all NSCLC patients and 15.3% of 26 operable patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of the clinical factors of bone metastases were 63.6, 73.9, 52.5, 81.8 and 70.7% respectively. There was no significant relationship between histologic type and bone metastases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of WBBS in detection of bone metastases were 96.9, 86.3, 76.2, 98.4, 89.6% respectively. Conclusion:Sensitivity and specificity of the clinical factors of bone metastases are quite low. Routine WBBS prevented futile thoracotomies. Therefore, routine WBBS should be performed in all NSCLC patients, even in the absence of bone-specific clinical factors.
  9,020 524 3
POSTGRADUATE CLINICAL SECTION
Unusual cause of a lung mass
Jamal Al Deen Alkoteesh, Amer Shammas
January-March 2007, 2(1):34-35
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.30362  PMID:19724674
  7,431 456 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Expired breath condensate hydrogen peroxide concentration and pH for screening cough variant asthma among chronic cough
Amina Hamed Ahmad Al Obaidi
January-March 2007, 2(1):18-22
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.30357  PMID:19724670
The reported studies suggest a role for eosinophils in the pathogenesis of cough variant asthma. In the present study, the expired breath condensate level of hydrogen peroxide and pH were determined in patients with cough variant asthma and compared to subjects with classical asthma, with chronic cough nonasthmatic and healthy control. Twenty-seven patients with cough variant asthma, 43 patients with classical asthma, 32 patients with chronic cough and 27 healthy subjects were studied in a cross-sectional study. Hydrogen peroxide concentration was significantly higher in cough variant asthma as compared to chronic cough nonasthmatic patients and healthy control subjects, while pH level was significantly lower in cough variant asthma as compared to chronic cough nonasthmatic patients and healthy control subjects. However, there was no significant difference in expired breath condensate hydrogen peroxide and pH between cough variant asthma and classical asthma. In conclusion, hydrogen peroxide concentration and pH of expired breath condensate may be used as noninvasive markers to differentiate cough variant asthma from chronic cough.
  6,863 550 5
A review of 151 cases of pediatric noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in a tertiary care center
Hanaa Hasan Banjar
January-March 2007, 2(1):3-8
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.30354  PMID:19724667
Objective: This study was conducted to review the etiological factors and diseases associated with pediatric noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of all patients with confirmed noncystic fibrosis (Non-CF) bronchiectasis by chest X-ray and/or CT chest in a pulmonary clinic during the period 1993-2005 at a tertiary care center in Riyadh. Results: A total of 151 cases were diagnosed as Non-CF bronchiectasis. Seventy-five (49.7%) were male, 76 (50.3%) were female; 148 (98%) are alive and 3 (2%) died. The southwestern regions constituted 72 (50%) of the cases. There was a period of (5 3.2) years between the start of symptoms and diagnosis of bronchiectasis. More than two-thirds of the patients had cough, tachypnea, wheezing, sputum production and failure to thrive. Ninety-one (60%) had associated diseases: Pulmonary diseases in 48 (32%), immunodeficiency in 27 (18%), central nervous system anomalies in 10 (7%), cardiac in 10 (7%) and asthma in 103 (68%) of the patients. Left lower lobe was commonly involved in 114 (76%) patients. Sixty-eight (67%) were found to have sinusitis. More than two-thirds of patients had two or more associated diseases. Forty-nine (32%) developed gastroesophageal reflux. Hemophilus influenza was cultured in 56 (37%), strept pneumoniae in 25 (17%) and pseudomonas aeruginosa in 24 (16%) of the patients. Eighty percent of the patients who had pulmonary function test had abnormal changes. Disease progression was related to development of symptoms before 5 years of age, persistent atelectasis and right lower lobe involvement ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: Non-CF bronchiectasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent chest infection in Saudi Arabia. Early diagnosis and identification of associated diseases is needed to prevent progression of the disease.
  6,768 644 7
CASE REPORT
The 'dark bronchus' sign: HRCT diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
Poonam Yadav, Ashu Seith, Rita Sood
January-March 2007, 2(1):26-27
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.30359  PMID:19724672
We report the importance of the 'dark bronchus' sign in the diagnosis of uniform, diffuse ground glass opacification on high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT). This sign is useful to identify diffuse ground glass opacity on HRCT in cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia who may present with a normal or equivocal chest radiograph in the early course of disease.
  6,491 649 -
Use of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation during pregnancy: Case series
Mariam A Al-Ansari, Akmal A Hameed, Suhaila E Al-jawder, Hassan M Saeed
January-March 2007, 2(1):23-25
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.30358  PMID:19724671
Mechanical ventilation is commonly required in critically ill pregnant patients, requiring ICU admission, with higher morbidity and mortality related to airway management. Alternatively, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is increasingly used to treat nonpregnant patients. Pregnancy has been a contraindication to its use. We would like to report a case series of successful use of NIPPV in pregnancy. NIPPV is increasingly used to treat hypoxemic respiratory failure. It has rarely been used during pregnancy. On the other hand, acute respiratory failure (ARF) remains a leading cause of ICU admission in obstetric patients. The use of NIPPV in managing ARF in pregnant patients was not investigated. We report the outcome of treatment with NIPPV of four sickle cell disease pregnant patients with ARF caused by acute chest syndrome. Median APACHE II score for the four cases was 27. Intubation was avoided in all cases. None had aspiration. Mean duration of NIPPV was 40 h with ICU discharge after a mean of 4 days.
  4,809 615 5
EDITORIAL
Noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: Is it an orphan disease?
Khalid F Mobaireek
January-March 2007, 2(1):2-2
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.30353  PMID:19724666
  4,195 468 1
LETTER TO EDITOR
Massive hemoptysis in intravenous drug users: Case report and review of literature
V Aiyappan, M Muthiah
January-March 2007, 2(1):36-36
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.30363  PMID:19724675
  3,117 368 2
EDITORIAL
Joint meetings: Exchange of ideas and knowledge advancement
Hamdan Al-Jahdali
January-March 2007, 2(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/1817-1737.30352  PMID:19724665
  2,407 314 -
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