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2007| April-June | Volume 2 | Issue 2
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Classification of asthma according to revised 2006 GINA: Evolution from severity to control
Emad A Koshak
April-June 2007, 2(2):45-46
Manifestation of tuberculosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus: A large Indian study
S Rajasekaran, A Mahilmaran, S Annadurai, S Kumar, K Raja
April-June 2007, 2(2):58-60
Government Hospital of Thoracic Medicine, Tambaram Sanatorium, Chennai, is the largest HIV-care center in South East Asia. As many as 29,300 HIV patients visited this center at least once in the year 2005 for care and support.
Clinical manifestations and the modes of presentation of tuberculosis were assessed among 12,750 adult and adolescent patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attending the hospital for the first time.
Materials and Methods:
Database of Hospital Information System, specially evolved for managing patients afflicted with tuberculosis and HIV, was utilized. The particulars confined to patients with tuberculosis and HIV co-infection who visited the hospital for the first time from January to December 2005 were considered for the analysis. Proportion test and Chi-square test with Yates correction were done.
As many as 12,750 adult and adolescent HIV-confirmed patients were screened for the possible presence of tuberculosis. Out of them, 4,383 (34.4%) patients had tuberculosis. Among them, 2,448 (55.9%) had pulmonary tuberculosis, and the remaining 1,935 (44.1%) had either disseminated or extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (P<0.001). Positive sputum-smear microscopy for acid fast bacilli was evident in 1,363 (31.1%) patients; however, it was significantly lower compared to positive smear rate of 44% in HIV patients (P< 0.001).
Tuberculosis was found to be the predominant co-infection among the symptomatic patients infected with HIV attending the largest care center for the first time in India. Advanced tuberculosis, disseminated tuberculosis and sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis were the presenting clinical manifestations in 44% of the patients, as they had moderate to advanced immunosuppression. Early detection of tuberculosis co-infection is absolutely necessary.
The incidence of complications of central venous catheters at an intensive care unit
AH Akmal, M Hasan, A Mariam
April-June 2007, 2(2):61-63
Central venous catheter (CVC) placement in the intensive care unit (ICU) is a common practice and is being increasingly used also in general wards. Its use is associated with both mechanical and infectious complications.
To determine the infectious and mechanical complication
rate of central venous catheterization in an ICU.
A retrospective study about complications of 1319 central venous catheter placements.
An 11-bed adult medical, surgical, neuro-trauma ICU at salmaniya medical complex,
Materials and Methods
: This was a retrospective review
of all central venous catheter inserted over 4 year's period from October 2002
to December 2006.
There were 12 mechanical complications and 128 infectious complications total
of 1319 CVCs placed.
The CVC can be performed safely in an ICU if done by a competent physician with all aseptic precautions
Incidence of multidrug-resistant organisms causing ventilator-associated pneumonia in a tertiary care hospital: A nine months' prospective study
Arindam Dey, Indira Bairy
April-June 2007, 2(2):52-57
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important intensive care unit (ICU) infection in mechanically ventilated patients. VAP occurs approximately in 9-27% of all intubated patients. Due to the increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant organisms in ICUs, early and correct diagnosis of VAP is an urgent challenge for an optimal antibiotic treatment.
Aim of the Study:
The aim of the study was to assess the incidence of VAP caused by multidrug-resistant organisms in the multidisciplinary intensive care unit (MICU) of our tertiary care 1,400-bedded hospital.
Materials and Methods:
This prospective study was done in the period from December 2005 to August 2006, enrolling patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) for >48 h. Endotracheal aspirates (ETA) were collected from patients with suspected VAP, and quantitative cultures were performed on all samples. VAP was diagnosed by the growth of pathogenic organism _10
Incidence of VAP was found to be 45.4% among the mechanically ventilated patients, out of which 47.7% had early-onset (<5 days MV) VAP and 52.3% had late-onset (>5 days MV) VAP. Multiresistant bacteria, mainly
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27%),
were the most commonly isolated pathogens in both types of VAP. Most of the isolates of
(80%) and Klebsiella
produced extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs). As many as 30.43% isolates of
showed production of AmpC beta lactamases among all types of isolates. Metallo-beta lactamases (MBLs) were produced by 50% of
and 21.74% of Acinetobacter spp.
: High incidence (45.4%) of VAP and the potential multidrug-resistant organisms are the real threat in our MICU. This study highlighted high incidence of VAP in our setup, emphasizing injudicious use of antimicrobial therapy. Combined approaches of rotational antibiotic therapy and education programs might be beneficial to fight against these MDR pathogens and will also help to decrease the incidence of VAP.
Evaluation of anti-A60 antigen IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis
Zakeya Abdulbaqi Bukhary
April-June 2007, 2(2):47-51
Problems in the diagnosis of tuberculosis using smear and culture techniques have necessitated the exploration of the utility of serodiagnosis to support clinical suspicion of tuberculosis. Anti-A60 antigen IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated as a tool for the diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis.
Materials and Methods :
ELISA was used for the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) against A60 antigen in parallel with other familiar diagnostic methods in 70 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (Group_I) along with 70 controls showing evidence of latent tuberculosis infection (Group II).
ELISA results were positive in 63 (90%) patients in Group_I compared to three (4%) controls in Group_II. Group_I patients had significantly higher titers of IgG (mean = 750.79 ± 115.87 U/ml against the A60 antigen as compared to Group II controls (mean = 206.67 ± 20.81 U/ml (
< 0.0001). The overall sensitivity and specificity obtained using ELISA were 90 and 95.7% respectively in active pulmonary tuberculosis. Ziehl-Nielsen (Z-N) stains for acid-fast bacilli were positive in 60 (85.7%) patients. In 48 (68.6%) patients,
grew on both Lowenstein-Jensen (L-J) medium and BACTEC MGIT 960 liquid medium with mean detection times of 45 and 8 days respectively. Tuberculin skin test was positive in 38 (54.3%) patients. Chest X-ray results were consistent with the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in 53 (75.7%) patients.
Anti-A60 IgG ELISA results were significantly positive and associated with elevated antibody titers in pulmonary tuberculosis as compared to latent mycobacterium
infection. The high diagnostic performance of the test makes it a useful, simple and rapid supporting tool to validate clinical suspicion of active
Positron emission tomography in the management of lung cancer
Vahid Reza Dabbagh Kakhki
April-June 2007, 2(2):69-76
F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is a useful technique to characterize the solitary pulmonary nodule, diagnose primary lung cancer, carry out mediastinal and extrathoracic staging, plan radiotherapy, therapeutic response assessment and detect recurrence. PET may help to determine the ideal site for tissue diagnosis as well as predict prognosis. Combined PET and computed tomography (PET / CT) has the best of both worlds of metabolic and anatomic imaging and may provide optimal disease assessment.
Gastropleural fistula: Rare entity with unusual etiology
Anshuman Darbari, Shekhar Tandon, GP Singh
April-June 2007, 2(2):64-65
Gastropleural fistula is a rare condition. We report a case where fistula developed iatrogenically during repeated intercostal drainage tube insertions for empyema.
POSTGRADUATE CLINICAL SECTION
Gradual shortness of breath
Jamal Al Deen Alkoteesh, Amer Shammas
April-June 2007, 2(2):77-79
Pulmonary hydatid cyst in a pregnant patient causing acute respiratory failure
Mohammed H Hijazi, Mariam A Al-Ansari
April-June 2007, 2(2):66-68
A 21-year-old primigravida, at 32 weeks of gestation, presented with acute onset of respiratory failure and circulatory shock. Chest imaging showed findings suggestive of ruptured hydatid cyst, which was confirmed by histology post-thoracotomy. Tissue cultures from the removed cyst grew
also. She was successfully managed in the intensive care unit and was then discharged home on antituberculosis medications in addition to albendazole after prolonged hospitalization and a need for chest tube for bronchopleural fistula. Acute respiratory failure and anaphylactic shock secondary to ruptured pulmonary hydatid cyst and superimposed pulmonary tuberculosis in a pregnant lady should be considered in patients living in endemic areas.
LETTER TO EDITOR
Multiple nodular and patchy infiltrations in a 34-year-old male
Aysin Sakar, Orhan Temel, Aylin Gulcu, Mine Cabuk, Cihan Goktan, Arzu Yorgancioglu
April-June 2007, 2(2):80-81
April-June 2007, 2(2):82-93
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