Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
 
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2019
Volume 14 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 165-221

Online since Wednesday, June 26, 2019

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Biomarkers and clinical scoring systems in community-acquired pneumonia Highly accessed article p. 165
Meropi Karakioulaki, Daiana Stolz
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_305_18  
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the third most common cause of death globally. Due to the complexity of CAP, it is widely accepted that, currently, clinical prognosis and diagnosis is inadequate for the assessment of the severity of the disease. With the aim to determining the initial treatment and the appropriate level of intervention, several clinical scores of severity and biomarkers have been developed. Both biomarkers and clinical scoring systems are expected to determine the different aspects of the host factor and the response to therapy, in order for physicians to be able to make an accurate benefit/risk assessment that will lead to proper diagnosis and correct prescription of antibiotics. This review aims to highlight the prognostic and diagnostic accuracy of various laboratory and clinical parameters in CAP and discuss the perspectives for the reduction of CAP mortality.
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Prevalence of the epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in lung adenocarcinoma patients from the Middle East region p. 173
Arafat Hussein Tfayli, Ghina Bassam Fakhri, Majd Sassine Al Assaad
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_344_18  
Lung cancer remains a major cause of cancer mortality with a 5-year survival in advanced stages around 4%. Platinum-based chemotherapy was routinely used as the standard of care in patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer, but it is being progressively replaced by targeted molecular therapy. One of the molecular aberrations harbored by lung adenocarcinoma is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). A large ethnic variation has been reported in the prevalence of EGFR mutations in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Data regarding its prevalence from the Middle East area remains limited. This paper aims at reviewing the data available for the prevalence of this mutation in the Middle Eastern patient population and comparing it with other reported series.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Characteristics and outcome of viral pneumonia caused by influenza and Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus infections: A 4-year experience from a tertiary care center p. 179
Abeer M Al-Baadani, Fatehi E Elzein, Salwa A Alhemyadi, Osama A Khan, Ali H Albenmousa, Majdy M Idrees
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_179_18  
BACKGROUND: After the emergence of new influenza viruses, the morbidity and mortality of viral pneumonia have received a great attention. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory changes, and outcomes of viral pneumonia caused by influenza and the Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, the medical records of all patients diagnosed with viral pneumonia at Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from January 2012 to December 2015 were screened. Cases who were > 18 years old and were confirmed by a respiratory viral panel to have viral pneumonia either MERS-CoV or influenza viruses were included in the analysis. Sociodemographic, clinical, laboratory, and outcome data were extracted from patients' medical files. The data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially to identify the predictors of poor outcome. RESULTS: A total of 448 patients with confirmed viral pneumonia were included, of those, 216 (48.2%) were caused by influenza A (non H1N1)/influenza B, 150 (33.5%) by H1N1, and 82 (18.3%) by MERS-CoV. The majority of patients presented with fever (82%), shortness of breath (64%), and flu-like symptoms (54.9%), particularly in MERS-CoV infected cases (92%). The peak incidence of viral pneumonia was in early spring and autumn. The mortality rate was 13.8%, and it was significantly higher among MERS-CoV cases. The predictors of death were age > 65 years, male gender, and associated comorbidities particularly diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and chronic kidney diseases. The number of comorbid illnesses was directly related to the increase in mortality in this group of patients. CONCLUSION: Viral pneumonia caused by influenza and MERS-CoV carries a high mortality rate, particularly among MERS-CoV infected cases. Old age, male gender, and comorbid illnesses are predictors of poor outcome. Routine testing for newly emergent viruses is warranted for adults who have been hospitalized with pneumonia.
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Low early posttransplant serum tacrolimus levels are associated with poor patient survival in lung transplant patients p. 186
Jung-Hwa Ryu, Sunmi Choi, Hyun Joo Lee, Young Tae Kim, Young Whan Kim, Jaeseok Yang
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_160_18  
BACKGROUND: Low-dose tacrolimus-based immunosuppression is a standard therapy in kidney and liver transplantation; however, the optimal therapeutic level of tacrolimus has not been established in lung transplantation. We aimed to identify the tacrolimus level associated with better outcomes in lung transplant patients. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients who underwent lung transplantation at Seoul National University Hospital between 2006 and 2016. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and Cox regression were performed according to tacrolimus levels at several time-points within 1-year posttransplantation. RESULTS: A total of 43 patients received bilateral lung transplantation. The median age was 53 years and the median follow-up was 20.5 months. Overall and 1-year patient survival rates were 55.8% and 74.4%, respectively. Infection was the most common cause of death (78.9%). Chronic lung allograft dysfunction was observed in 16.3%. A tacrolimus level <9 ng/ml at 1 month was associated with lower rejection-free survival (P = 0.009). A time-averaged tacrolimus level <10 ng/ml within 1 month posttransplantation was an independent risk factor for poor patient survival (hazard ratio: 4.904; 95% confidence interval: 1.930–12.459; P= 0.001). Furthermore, higher tacrolimus levels did not increase infectious complications. CONCLUSIONS: These finding suggest that tacrolimus levels ≥10 ng/ml within 1 month after lung transplantation appear to be associated with better patient survival.
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Comparison of arterial and venous blood gases in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome and neuromuscular disease p. 192
Hicran Orucova, Tulin Cagatay, Zuleyha Bingol, Penbe Cagatay, Gulfer Okumus, Esen Kiyan
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_29_19  
OBJECTIVES: Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) and some neuromuscular diseases (NMD) present with hypercapnic respiratory failure. Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis is important in the diagnosis, follow-up, and treatment response of these diseases. However, ABG sampling is difficult in these patients because of excessive subcutaneous fat tissue, muscle atrophy, or contracture. The aim of this study is to investigate the value of venous blood gas (VBG), which is an easier and less complicated method, among stable patients with OHS and NMD. METHODS: The study included stable OHS and NMD patients who had been previously diagnosed and followed up between March 2017 and May 2017 in the outpatient clinic. ABG was taken from all patients in room air, and peripheral VBG was taken within 5 min after ABG sampling. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients with OHS and 46 patients with NMD were included in the study. There was a moderate positive correlation between arterial and venous pH values for all patients (rs= 0.590, P < 0.001). There were a strong and very strong positive correlations between arterial and venous pCO2and HCO3values (rs= 0.725 and rs= 0.934, respectively) (P < 0.001). There was no correlation between arterial and venous pO2and saturation values. There was an agreement in Bland–Altman method for the values of ABG and VBG (pH, pCO2, and HCO3). CONCLUSIONS: There was a correlation between ABG and VBG values (pH, pCO2, and HCO3). VBG parameters (pH, pCO2, and HCO3) can be used safely instead of ABG parameters which have many risks, during treatment and follow-up of patients with OHS and NMD.
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Level and predictors of anxiety in patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy p. 198
Ahmed A Aljohaney
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_38_19  
AIMS: Flexible bronchoscopy is a common procedure performed in pulmonary medicine, critical care, and thoracic surgery. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of anxiety in patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy. METHODS: This is a prospective study conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. All patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy filled the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire before the procedure. Bronchoscopy was performed either through the mouth or the nose, based on the bronchoscopist preference. Lidocaine (1%–2%) spray was used for administering topical anesthesia. Results were collected, and statistical analysis was performed using t-test to measure statistically significant (P < 0.05). RESULTS: A total of 117 patients participated in this study. High anxiety score was found in 45% of the patients. Older patients significantly showed higher anxiety score than younger patients (53 years vs. 46 years, P= 0.034). Similarly, patients with higher body mass index (BMI) showed a statistically significant increase in anxiety score (28 vs. 25, P= 0.041). Premedication with pethidine significantly reduced the anxiety levels (26.9% vs. 73.1%, P= 0.031). Logistic regression demonstrated that old age and outpatient settings were significant predictors of higher anxiety scores. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic bronchoscopy can cause high anxiety in many patients. Prebronchoscopy anxiety assessment can help bronchoscopists to anticipate the anxiety levels of patients, and then further use it to tailor sedation requirements. Special attention should be given to older patients, patients with high BMI, and the ones undergoing bronchoscopy in outpatient settings.
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Computed tomography-guided percutaneous hook wire localization of pulmonary nodular lesions before video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery: Highlighting technical aspects p. 205
Jae Bum Park, Song Am Lee, Woo Surng Lee, Yo Han Kim, Inyoung Song, Jeong Geun Lee, Jae Joon Hwang
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_287_18  
OBJECTIVE: Confirming the histologic diagnosis of small pulmonary nodules or Ground-glass opacity nodules (GGNs) of unknown origin is difficult. These nodules are not always appropriate for percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy. Preoperative localization of pulmonary lesions provides more precise target points to ensure complete surgical excision. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the validity and effectiveness of computed tomography-guided preoperative hook wire localization with our technique for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 113 patients who had undergone preoperative hook wire localization before VATS resection for newly present or growing pulmonary nodular lesions between May 2007 and December 2016. Procedural and perioperative outcomes were assessed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of preoperative localization technique. RESULTS: A total of 113 pulmonary nodules were localized and successfully resected in all 113 patients. The mean diameter of nodules was 10.8 ± 6.1 mm (range, 3–28). The mean distance from the pleural surface was 20.2 ± 12.4 mm (range, 5–55). The mean procedure time of localization was 23.7 ± 6.3 min. Asymptomatic minimal pneumothorax and mild parenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 26 (23.0%) and 8 (7.1%) patients, respectively. There were 32 (28.3%) deep lung nodules, in which the distance to pleural surface was more than 25 mm. Wire dislodgement occurred in 4 (3.5%) patients. Complete resection of all lung lesions was achieved, and definite histological diagnosis was obtained in all patients. Pathologic examination revealed 42 (37.2%) primary lung cancers, 2 (1.8%) lymphomas, 53 (46.9%) metastases, 16 (14.1%) benign lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative percutaneous hook wire localization is a dependable and useful technique to facilitate positioning small and deep pulmonary nodules for thoracoscopic complete excision and accurate diagnosis.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Two rare complications in a single patient of lung cancer: Radiation-induced spontaneous esophageal perforation and aortic rupture and their successful management p. 213
Mohan Venkatesh Pulle, Harsh Vardhan Puri, Belal Bin Asaf, Arvind Kumar
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_30_19  
Adjuvant radiotherapy is indicated in few operated cases of lung cancer for effective local control. Oesophageal perforation and aortic rupture are rare and lethal complications of postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. Both of these complications happened in a 64 year male patient with squamous cell carcinoma of lung. Radiation induced oesophageal perforation occurred immediately after completion of radiotherapy. Endoscopic Self Expanding Radio Therapy (SEMS) was placed, thoracic cavity was debrided and window thoracostomy was performed. After few months of this episode, he had torrential bleeding from descending thoracic aorta. Thoracic Endo Vascular Aortic Repair (TEVAR) was done and bleeding was controlled. This case is unique because both these fatal events happened in a single patient. This report also highlights the use of above mentioned novel therapeutic methods for successful management of these complications in these frail patients.
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Successful management for repeated bar displacements after Nuss method by two bars connected by a stabilizer p. 216
Kotoku Yoshida, Tsutomu Kashimura, Yuji Kikuchi, Hiroaki Nakazawa
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_84_19  
The Nuss method has become the standard surgery for the treatment of funnel chest, and good therapeutic results have been reported. Among the complications of the Nuss method, displacement of the bar is the most frequent, and there are cases in which reoperation is necessary. In this case report, we have devised a new stabilizer that connects and fixes two bars as bar displacement occurred following each of the two prior Nuss procedures, and the outcome of our procedure was evaluated.
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LETTER TO THE EDITOR Top

Trends of critical care research in Saudi Arabia p. 220
Musharaf Sadat, Yaseen Arabi
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_356_18  
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