Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
 
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2019
Volume 14 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 223-287

Online since Friday, September 27, 2019

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EDITORIAL  

The journey to zero deep-vein thrombosis in critically ill patients Highly accessed article p. 223
Yaseen M Arabi, Sami J Alsolamy, Abdulaziz Al-Dawood
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_179_19  
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Lung nodules: A comprehensive review on current approach and management p. 226
Konstantinos Loverdos, Andreas Fotiadis, Chrysoula Kontogianni, Marianthi Iliopoulou, Mina Gaga
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_110_19  
In daily clinical practice, radiologists and pulmonologists are faced with incidental radiographic findings of pulmonary nodules. Deciding how to manage these findings is very important as many of them may be benign and require no further action, but others may represent early disease and importantly early-stage lung cancer and require prompt diagnosis and definitive treatment. As the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules includes invasive procedures which can be relatively minimal, such as bronchoscopy or transthoracic aspiration or biopsy, but also more invasive procedures such as thoracic surgical biopsies, and as these procedures are linked to anxiety and to cost, it is important to have clearly defined algorithms for the description, management, and follow-up of these nodules. Clear algorithms for the imaging protocols and the management of positive findings should also exist in lung cancer screening programs, which are already established in the USA and which will hopefully be established worldwide. This article reviews current knowledge on nodule definition, diagnostic evaluation, and management based on literature data and mainly recent guidelines.
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Thoracoscopy in pediatrics: Surgical perspectives p. 239
Osama A Bawazir
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_114_19  
Thoracoscopic surgery and other minimally invasive approaches in children achieved marked advancement and expanded to include several disciplines in the last decade. The new armamentarium of the minimally invasive surgery including the smaller instruments and better magnification led to the application of this technology in the small infants and neonates. Currently, thoracoscopy is considered the preferred surgical approach for various conditions in neonates and infants over the standard thoracotomy, and thoracoscopic training is included in the surgical training curriculum for the residents in many institutes worldwide. Children are different from adults, and technique modifications are required when using thoracoscopy in children. Thoracoscopy showed satisfactory results in several operations including pulmonary resections, mediastinal tumors biopsies or resections, repair of the diaphragmatic hernias, decortication, and tracheoesophageal fistula. This review aims to address the unique aspects of thoracoscopic surgery in children, identify its potential technical and anatomical challenges, and the proposed solutions. A literature search for latest and relevant publications was done using the keywords (thoracoscopy; pediatric; lung biopsy; decortication; lobectomy; mediastinum; esophagus; and diaphragmatic hernia).
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Prognostic value of blood biomarkers in patients with unprovoked acute pulmonary embolism p. 248
Joo Hee Lee, Jin Won Huh, Sang-Bum Hong, Yeon-Mok Oh, Tae Sun Shim, Chae-Man Lim, Sang-Do Lee, Younsuck Koh, Woo Sung Kim, Jae Seung Lee
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_62_19  
BACKGROUND: Better outcomes have been observed in patients with acute unprovoked than provoked pulmonary embolism (PE). Prognostic biomarkers were studied in heterogeneous patient population and were not verified in patients with unprovoked PE. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with unprovoked acute PE from 2010 to 2017 at Asan Medical Center, South Korea, were analyzed retrospectively. Adverse composite outcomes were defined as thrombolysis, thrombectomy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or death. Venous blood samples were collected at the first visit before anticoagulant treatment. Biomarkers associated with composite outcomes were analyzed and compared with preexisting risk models. RESULTS: This study included 265 patients (48.7% male) with a median age of 66.0 (interquartile range 52.0, 75.0) years. Composite outcomes occurred in 20 (7.5%) patients. Hemoglobin, uric acid, and glucose were significantly and independently associated with adverse composite outcomes. This biomarker model showed the highest prognostic accuracy for adverse composite outcomes, with an area under the curve of 0.806 (95% confidence interval: 0.702–0.911,P < 0.001), which was significantly better than that of PE severity index (PESI) or simplified PESI, and comparable to that of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) risk classification. CONCLUSIONS: The biomarker model including hemoglobin, uric acid, and glucose has good prognostic performance comparable to the ESC risk classification while PESI or simplified PESI score was not useful in unprovoked PE.
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Diagnosis of infectious pleural effusion using predictive models based on pleural fluid biomarkers p. 254
Lucía Ferreiro, Óscar Lado-Baleato, Juan Suárez-Antelo, María Elena Toubes, María Esther San José, Adriana Lama, Nuria Rodríguez-Núñez, José Manuel Álvarez-Dobaño, Francisco J González-Barcala, Jorge Ricoy, Francisco Gude, Luis Valdés
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_77_19  
INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of pleural infection (PI) may be challenging. The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a clinical prediction model for the diagnosis of PI based on pleural fluid (PF) biomarkers. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on pleural effusion. Logistic regression was used to estimate the likelihood of having PI. Two models were built using PF biomarkers. The power of discrimination (area under the curve) and calibration of the two models were evaluated. RESULTS: The sample was composed of 706 pleural effusion (248 malignant; 28 tuberculous; 177 infectious; 48 miscellaneous exudates; and 212 transudates). Areas under the curve for Model 1 (leukocytes, percentage of neutrophils, and C-reactive protein) and Model 2 (the same markers plus interleukin-6 [IL-6]) were 0.896 and 0.909, respectively (not significant differences). However, both models showed higher capacity of discrimination than their biomarkers when used separately (P < 0.001 for all). Rates of correct classification for Models 1 and 2 were 88.2% (623/706: 160/177 [90.4%] with infectious pleural effusion [IPE] and 463/529 [87.5%] with non-IPE) and 89.2% (630/706: 153/177 [86.4%] of IPE and 477/529 [90.2%] of non-IPE), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The two predictive models developed for IPE showed a good diagnostic performance, superior to that of any of the markers when used separately. Although IL-6 contributes a slight greater capacity of discrimination to the model that includes it, its routine determination does not seem justified.
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Repositioning of endotracheal tube and risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia among adult patients: A matched case-control study p. 264
Taha Ismaeil, Latifah Alfunaysan, Nouf Alotaibi, Shatha Alkadi, Fatmah Othman
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_26_19  
INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most serious hospital-acquired infections to occur among mechanically ventilated patients. Many risk factors for VAP have been identified in the literature; however, there is a lack of studies examining the association between endotracheal tube (ETT) repositioning and an increase in the risk of VAP. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate the effect of ETT repositioning and the risk of developing VAP. METHODS: Matched case-control studies were conducted among mechanically ventilated patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at King Abdulaziz Medical City from 2016 to 2018. Patients who had a documented VAP diagnosis were identified and matched to four controls (within a 10-year age band). The history of ETT repositioning (defined as changes in the positioned ETTs from the first reading at the time of ETT insertion) was explored in the medical files of the sample, as were other demographic and comorbidity risk factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the association between ETT repositioning and VAP. RESULTS: A total of 24 cases were identified with documented VAP diagnosis during the study. Those cases were matched to 81 controls. The mean age was 55 (standard deviation 21) for both cases and controls. VAP patients had a greater history of ETT repositioning (46%) compared to controls (29%). Patients who had a history of ETT repositioning were twice as likely to develop VAP as patients who had no history of ETT repositioning (P = 0.13). After adjustment of a potential confounder, the results showed evidence of an increased risk of VAP after ETT repositioning (odds ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval 1.0–9.6). CONCLUSION: Reposition of ETT considers as a risk factor for VAP in ICU patients, and appropriate measures should be applied to reduce movements of the ETT tube.
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Pulmonary dysfunction among adolescents and adults with sickle cell disease in Nigeria: Implications for monitoring p. 269
Obianuju B Ozoh, Olufunto O Kalejaiye, Ojiebun E Eromesele, Yusuf A Adelabu, Sandra K Dede, Folasade O Ogunlesi
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_58_19  
Background: Pulmonary complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) contribute to excess morbidity and mortality. The burden of pulmonary dysfunction among Nigerians with SCD has not been well elucidated. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to describe the frequency and pattern of spirometry abnormalities in SCD and to explore the association between pulmonary dysfunction and selected parameters. METHODS: A cross-sectional study among adolescents and adults with SCD attending a University Teaching Hospital and healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Respiratory symptoms, oxygen saturation, spirometry, complete blood counts, and fetal hemoglobin (Hb) were measured. RESULTS: A total of 245 participants with SCD and 216 controls were included in the study. Frequency of respiratory symptoms was similar between the two groups. The median forced expiratory volume 1 (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and the FEV1/FVC were significantly lower in SCD as compared to controls (P = 0.000 in all instances). The frequency of abnormal pulmonary patterns was higher in SCD as compared to controls with abnormal spirometry pattern in 174 (71%) and 68 (31.5%) of participants with SCD and controls, respectively (P = 0.000). The suggestive of restrictive pattern was predominant (48% vs. 23%), but obstructive (11.8% vs. 7.4%) and mixed patterns (11% vs. 0.9%) were also found among SCD versus controls. Hb concentration was positively associated with FEV1 and FVC, whereas white cell count and age were negatively associated with FVC and FEV1, respectively. CONCLUSION: There is a high burden of pulmonary dysfunction in SCD among Nigerians which may be related to the severity of disease. There is a need for further research to explore the effectiveness of potential interventions so as to harness the benefits from monitoring and early detection.
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Prevalence and factors associated with adult bronchial asthma in Aseer region, Southwestern Saudi Arabia p. 278
Badr Rashed Al Ghamdi, Emad Abdulkadir Koshak, Hussein Mohammad Ageely, Fakhreldin Mohamed Omer, Nabil Joseph Awadalla, Ahmed A Mahfouz
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_67_19  
BACKGROUND: Bronchial asthma (BA) is one of the most common chronic respiratory diseases in Saudi Arabia (SA). Most of the studies investigating the prevalence of BA in SA have focused on children and its exact prevalence in adults is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is tto investigate the prevalence and factors associated with adult BA in Aseer region, southwestern SA. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a representative sample of adults who attended primary health care centers. A validated Arabic version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire was used. The presence of wheeze in the past 12 months was used as a proxy for BA. RESULTS: The study included 960 adults. The prevalence rate of BA was 19.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.72–21.80). In a multivariable analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with BA in adults; living in low-altitude areas (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.04–2.21), being in rural areas (aOR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.12–2.23), using analgesics (aOR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.06–2.20), residing near heavy trucks traffics (aOR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.13–2.46), having cats in the house (aOR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.30–5.94), and being aged 55–64-year-old (aOR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.02–3.69). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of BA was high, affecting one-fifth of adults in Aseer region. The study revealed some modifiable factors significantly associated with BA in adults. There is a need to improve asthma control programs at the primary health-care level, particularly at rural and at low-altitude areas, and more focus should address the elders. In addition, enhancing community-based health promotion programs tackling the identified modifiable factors of BA are required.
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CASE REPORT Top

A novel diagnostic approach for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia using fine-needle aspiration, electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy and rapid on-site evaluation p. 285
Farnaz Houshmand, Fatima Zahra Aly, Mark Rollin Bowling
DOI:10.4103/atm.ATM_171_19  
Cavitary lung lesions are common in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infections. Both atypical infections and thoracic malignancies can manifest as a cavitary pulmonary lesion. Standard bronchoscopy is commonly used to evaluate these abnormalities but is limited in its ability to fully assess for cancer and infection. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples are likely to aid in the diagnosis of infection but are less useful in the evaluation of malignancy. In addition, many of these pulmonary lesions are located in the periphery of the lung and are not accessible for tissue sampling by standard bronchoscopy. We present a unique presentation of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and discuss the utility of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy in the evaluation of immunocompromised patients with peripheral cavitary lung lesion.
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