Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 9-14

Prevalence of restless legs syndrome among pregnant women: A case–control study


1 Department of Medicine, The University Sleep Disorders Center; Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Medicine, The University Sleep Disorders Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ahmed S Bahammam
Department of Medicine, The University Sleep Disorders Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Box 225503, Riyadh 11324
Saudi Arabia
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DOI: 10.4103/atm.ATM_206_19

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BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional case–control study aimed to assess the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and its correlates and severity among Arab (Saudi) pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics. METHODS: We interviewed 742 consecutive pregnant women attending antenatal clinics face-to-face using the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG) criteria. We assessed the severity of RLS using the IRLSSG severity scale for RLS (IRLS). A similar number of age-matched nonpregnant women were enrolled in a control group. RESULTS: Among the cases, 104 (14%) were in the first trimester, 232 (31.3%) in the second trimester, and 406 (54.7%) in the third trimester. The RLS prevalence in cases and controls was 30% and 26.5%, respectively, (P = 0.134). Among cases, severe/very severe RLS was diagnosed in 25% and mild/moderate in 75%, compared with 15% of controls having severe/very severe RLS and 85% having mild/moderate RLS (P < 0.001). Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis identified the following parameters as independent predictors of RLS: parity (odds ratio [OR] 1.113 [confidence intervals [CI] 1.012–1.223], P = 0.027), anemia (OR 1.452 [1.033–2.042], P = 0.03), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.734 [CI 1.084–2.774], P = 0.022), Vitamin D deficiency (OR 2.376 [CI 1.488–3.794],P < 0.001), and smoking (OR 3.839 [CI 1.463–10.074], P = 0.006). None of the cases had been diagnosed or treated for RLS in the antenatal clinics. CONCLUSION: RLS is common, but underdiagnosed, among Saudi pregnant women and nonpregnant women of childbearing age. The study revealed that RLS during pregnancy is linked to parity, anemia, diabetes mellitus, Vitamin D deficiency, and smoking.


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