Prevalence and factors associated with adult bronchial asthma in Aseer region, Southwestern Saudi Arabia
Badr Rashed Al Ghamdi1, Emad Abdulkadir Koshak2, Hussein Mohammad Ageely3, Fakhreldin Mohamed Omer4, Nabil Joseph Awadalla5, Ahmed A Mahfouz6
1 Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Clinical Microbiology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
5 Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia; Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
6 Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia; Department of Epidemiology, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Dr. Badr Rashed Al Ghamdi
Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha
BACKGROUND: Bronchial asthma (BA) is one of the most common chronic respiratory diseases in Saudi Arabia (SA). Most of the studies investigating the prevalence of BA in SA have focused on children and its exact prevalence in adults is unknown.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is tto investigate the prevalence and factors associated with adult BA in Aseer region, southwestern SA.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a representative sample of adults who attended primary health care centers. A validated Arabic version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire was used. The presence of wheeze in the past 12 months was used as a proxy for BA.
RESULTS: The study included 960 adults. The prevalence rate of BA was 19.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.72–21.80). In a multivariable analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with BA in adults; living in low-altitude areas (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.04–2.21), being in rural areas (aOR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.12–2.23), using analgesics (aOR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.06–2.20), residing near heavy trucks traffics (aOR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.13–2.46), having cats in the house (aOR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.30–5.94), and being aged 55–64-year-old (aOR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.02–3.69).
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of BA was high, affecting one-fifth of adults in Aseer region. The study revealed some modifiable factors significantly associated with BA in adults. There is a need to improve asthma control programs at the primary health-care level, particularly at rural and at low-altitude areas, and more focus should address the elders. In addition, enhancing community-based health promotion programs tackling the identified modifiable factors of BA are required.