Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 88-94

Prevalence and risk factors of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a Saudi Arabian population


1 Sleep Medicine and Research Center, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
3 Sleep Disorders Center, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Siraj Omar Wali
College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Sleep Medicine and Research Center, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, P.O. Box: 21589, Jeddah 80215
Saudi Arabia
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DOI: 10.4103/1817-1737.203746

PMID: 28469718

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Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder worldwide; however, epidemiological studies on its prevalence lack in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of OSA in Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study was performed from 2013 to 2015 in two stages. The screening stage was first; a random sample of Saudi employees (n = 2682) 30–60 years of age completed a survey that included the Wisconsin questionnaire. According to these data, the subjects were categorized as habitual, moderate, or nonsnorers (NSs). The confirmatory second stage was a case–control study conducted on 346 individuals selected from each group using polysomnography (PSG). Results: In the first stage, the prevalence of habitual snoring was 23.5%, moderate snoring was16.6%, while 59.9% of the sample was NSs. Among the 346 individuals who underwent PSG, a total of 235 (67.9%) subjects had OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of ≥5; 76 (22.0%) had OSA syndrome (OSAS), defined by an AHI of ≥5 plus daytime sleepiness; and 227 (65.6%) had clinically diagnosed OSA syndrome (COSAS), as defined by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. A conservative estimate of at least 8.8% (12.8% in men and 5.1% in women) was calculated for the overall prevalence of OSA. Similarly, the overall estimated prevalence of OSAS and COSAS was 2.8% (4.0% in men and 1.8% in women) and 8.5% (12.4% in men and 4.8% in women), respectively. A multivariate analysis revealed age, gender, obesity, and hypertension as independent risk factors of OSA. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that the rate and risk factors of OSA in the Saudi population are similar to those observed in Western studies.


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