Annals of Thoracic Medicine Official publication of the Saudi Thoracic Society, affiliated to King Saud University
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 18-22

Outcome of pulmonary embolism and clinico-radiological predictors of mortality: Experience from a university hospital in Saudi Arabia


1 Department of Critical Care Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Hadil A. K. Al Otair
Department of Critical Care Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925(95), Riyadh 11461
Saudi Arabia
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DOI: 10.4103/1817-1737.124420

PMID: 24551013

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Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the outcome of pulmonary embolism (PE) and the clinico-radiological predictors of mortality in a university hospital setting. Methods: A Prospective observational study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh Saudi Arabia between January 2009 and 2012. A total of 105 consecutive patients (49.9 ± 18.7 years) with PE diagnosed by computed tomography pulmonary angiography were followed until death or hospital discharge. Results: Overall in hospital mortality rate was 8.6%, which is lower than other international reports. Two-thirds of patients developed PE during the hospitalization. The most common risk factors were surgery (35.2%), obesity (34.3%) and immobility (30.5%). The localization of the embolus was central in 32.4%, lobar in 19% and distal in 48.6%. A total of 26 patients (25%) had evidence of right ventricular strain and 14 (13.3%) were hypotensive. Multivariate analysis revealed that heart failure (Beta = −0.53, P < 0.001), palpitation (Beta = −0.24, P = 0.014) and high respiratory rate (Beta = −0.211, P < 0.036) were significant predictors of mortality. There was no significant difference in the localization of the embolus or obstruction score between survivors and non-survivors. Conclusion: The outcome of PE is improving; however, it remains an important risk factor for mortality in hospitalized patients. Congestive heart failure, tachypnea and tachycardia at presentation were associated with higher mortality. These factors need to be considered for risk stratification and management decisions of PE patients. Radiological quantification of clot burden was not a predictor of death.


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