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Year : 2011  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 107-108
Pulmonary disorder and present nuclear denotation: A brief summary


Wiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok, Thailand

Date of Submission04-May-2011
Date of Acceptance05-May-2011
Date of Web Publication29-Jun-2011

Correspondence Address:
Viroj Wiwanitkit
Wiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok 10160
Thailand
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DOI: 10.4103/1817-1737.82435

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   Abstract 

There are many health effects caused by leaked radiation from damaged reactors of a nuclear power plant. However, the effect on pulmonary system is not reported much. Focusing on the present nuclear denotation crisis in Japan, it is wise to review on the specific issue of pulmonary disorder and nuclear denotation. Several disorders of interest, including malignancy and non-malignancy disorders, are mentioned in the literature.


Keywords: Disorder, nuclear denotation, pulmonary


How to cite this article:
Wiwanitkit V. Pulmonary disorder and present nuclear denotation: A brief summary. Ann Thorac Med 2011;6:107-8

How to cite this URL:
Wiwanitkit V. Pulmonary disorder and present nuclear denotation: A brief summary. Ann Thorac Med [serial online] 2011 [cited 2019 Oct 15];6:107-8. Available from: http://www.thoracicmedicine.org/text.asp?2011/6/3/107/82435


Accident in a nuclear power plant is a totally unwanted episode. The problems of nuclear power plant accident have been recorded in the world literature. Previously, Chernobyl crisis was the famous one, and presently, Fukushima crisis, which is the consequence of giant Japanese tsunami, has attracted much attention.

There are many health effects caused by the leaked radiation from the damaged reactors of a nuclear power plant. The preparedness to cope with the possible problem is a need post crisis. [1] However, the effect on pulmonary system is not well studied. Focusing on the present nuclear denotation Crisis in Japan, it is wise to review on the specific issue of pulmonary disorder and nuclear denotation. Several disorders of interest, including malignancy and non-malignancy disorders, are mentioned in the literature.


   Induction of Pulmonary Malignancy Top


A significant increase in the incidence of cancer, especially thyroid cancer, in the population exposed to radiation is noted. [2] Focusing on the lung cancer, although there is no clear evidence on the contributing risk, there are some reports on finding the radioactive particle in cancerous tissue from lung cancerous patients with history of exposure in Chernobyl crisis. [3],[4] Increased incidence of lung cancer is reported; however, there is still no conclusive evidence on the relationship. [5],[6] A study in USA on the status of lung cancer after the Chernobyl crisis noted, "3,800,000 fatalities from lung cancer are estimated to occur within the U.S. population during the next 45 years". [7]


   Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Chronic Bronchitis Top


It is reported that exposure results in deterioration of chronic obstructive lung disease and chronic bronchitis. [8] Bronchial mucosa atrophy can be observed and this can result in hemoptysis.[8] In chronic non-obstructive bronchitis, mild broncho-obstruction at the distal level can be seen; however, laboratory indices usually show no essential changes. [8] Focusing on the pathogenesis, changes in the fatty acid composition of lipids in the surfactant of the lung and deterioration of specific and non-specific immune protection are believed to be the main factors contributing to the occurrence of inflammatory respiratory diseases. [9],[10] The main pathological change is transformed alterative, compensatory-adaptive and inflammatory reactions in bronchial mucosa.[11] For management of the case, N-acetylcysteine at a dose of 1200 mg/day is recommended. [12]


   Thanatogenesis of Tuberculosis Top


There are some evidences on the thanatogenesis of tuberculosis. A higher level of tuberculosis morbidity is noted. [13] The patients usually present disseminated infection with high rate of smear positivity. [13] "Overstrain of adaptational-compensatory mechanisms of the immune system that finally led to the development of T-immunodeficiency" was reported. [14] However, the use of routine chest X-ray for screening of tuberculosis as well as other lung diseases (such as lung cancer) is proved not too useful. [15]

 
   References Top

1.Wiwanitkit V. Post-crisis: Earthquake, tsunami, radiation leak and rural health Crisis in Japan. Rural Remote Health 2011;11:1770.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Tondel M. Increased cancer risk after Chernobyl-the Cause should be investigated more closely. Lakartidningen 2007;104:3691-2.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Chizhikov V, Chikina S, Gasparian A, ZborovskayaI, Steshina E, Ungiadze G, et al. Molecular follow-up of preneoplastic lesions in bronchial epithelium of former Chernobyl clean-up workers. Oncogene 2002;21:2398-405.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Grobova OM, Chernikov VP. The presence of cesium-137 in the tissue of a lung tumor in someone who cleaned up the aftermath of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station. Ter Arkh 1996;68:26-30.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Zubovskii GA, Khrisanfov SA. Lung cancer in survivors of radiation exposure at the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Vopr Onkol 2003;49:359-62.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Rahu M, Tekkel M, Veidebaum T, Pukkala E, Hakulinen T, Auvinen A, et al. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers: II, Incidence of cancer and mortality. Radiat Res 1997;147:653-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Broadway JA, Smith JM, Norwood DL, Porter CR. Estimates of radiation dose and health risks to the United States population following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident. Health Phys 1988;55:533-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Tkachishin VS. Clinical course of chronic bronchitis in Chernobyl wreckers. Ter Arkh 2000;72:59-61.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Pikas OB. Fatty acid lipid spectrum in the expired air condensate of persons exposed to moderate-dosage ionizing radiation at the Chernobyl atomic power station. Probl Tuberk 2002;3:48-50.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Poliakova VA, Suchko VA, Tereshchenko VP, Bazyka DA, Golovnia OM, Rudavskaia GA. Invasion of microorganisms in bronchial mucosa of liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences. Mikrobiol Z 2001;63:41-50.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Segeda TP, Poliakova VA, Tereshchenko VP. The ultrastructural characteristics of the bronchial mucosa in chronic inflammation in participants in the cleanup of the aftermath of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station. Tsitol Genet 1999;33:15-24.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Chikina SI, Iagmurov BK, Kopylev ID, Soodaeva SK, Chuchalin AG. N-Acetylcysteine: Low and high doses in the treatment of chronic obstructive lung diseases in Chernobyl accident liquidators. Ter Arkh 2002;74:62-5.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Kalechits OM, Al'khimovich VA. Tuberculosis and the Chernobyl tragedy: Status and prognosis. Probl Tuberk 1990;11:14-6.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Surkova LK, Shtilman ME. Characteristics of thanatogenesis and pathomorphology of tuberculosis in the Gomel region in relation to the Chernobyl AES accident. Probl Tuberk 1993;2:20-4.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Kharchenko VP, ZubovskiiiĬ GA, Tararukhina OB. Value of prophylactic investigation of thoracic organs in victims of the Chernobyl power plant disaster. Vopr Onkol 1999;45:99-101.  Back to cited text no. 15
    




 

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